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review on some causes of male infertility
FO Olayemi
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: This work reviews a wide range of factors that are responsible for male infertility. The normal human sperm cell measures 50-60 m in length and has head, neck, middle piece and tail. The head is oval in shape and is 3-5 m in length and 2-3 m in width. The mid-piece is slender, straight and regular in outline. It is aligned with the long axis of the head, and is approximately 7-8 m in length. Its width is about one third of the head. The tail is slender, straight and regular in outline and is 40-45 m in length. The ability to fertilize oocytes is considered as the ultimate test of sperm function. A male is said to be infertile if he is unable to impregnate his partner after one year of unprotected intercourse. Some cases of male infertility are due to anatomical abnormalities such as varicoceles. This work reviewed some natural and synthetic products that have been implicated in male infertility. There is also a section on some medicinal plants that are responsible for male infertility.
Chlamydial Infection and Its Role in Male Infertility  [PDF]
Mary K. Samplaski,Trustin Domes,Keith A. Jarvi
Advances in Andrology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/307950
Abstract: Introduction. Chlamydia trachomatis is an established cause of tubal factor infertility; however its role in male fertility is not as clear. We sought to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia in infertile men and evaluate its impact on male reproductive potential. Materials and Methods. We compared the incidence of Chlamydia in our infertile male population with that reported in the literature. We then reviewed the impact of Chlamydia infection on male fertility. Results. The incidence of Chlamydia infection in our population of infertile men was 0.3%. There is considerable variability in the reported incidence, likely due to variation in the population studied, and detection technique. The optimal testing method and sample are presently unclear. The effect of Chlamydia on male reproductive function is also variable in the literature, but appears to be relatively minimal and may be related primarily to sperm DNA fragmentation or female partner transmission. Conclusions. The prevalence of Chlamydia in the infertile male population is low and routine testing is not supported by the literature. For high-risk infertile men, nucleic acid testing of urine +/? semen is the most sensitive method to detect Chlamydia. A validated testing system for semen needs to be developed, so that a standardized methodology can be recommended. In this way the full implications of Chlamydia on male fertility can be elucidated. 1. Introduction Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in the world and a common cause of pathology in both men and women, causing urethritis, epididymitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor infertility [1]. While there are regional differences in the prevalence, it remains a common cause of genitourinary pathology in both men and women. In women C. trachomatis is a well-established cause of tubal factor infertility. In men it is a known common genitourinary pathogen, and electron microscopy has clearly demonstrated that C. trachomatis attach to spermatozoa [2–5], both on the surface and in the nucleus [6]; however its role in male fertility (sperm function, pregnancy rates, and live birth rates) is not clear. As the etiology of approximately 55% of male factor infertility is unknown, it is possible that Chlamydia is contributory in some of these cases. In our study in a Canadian clinic, we identified a very low prevalence of Chlamydia in the infertile male population of only 0.3% [7]. This is the largest study of the prevalence of C.
Abnormal expression of centrosome protein (centrin) in spermatozoa of male human infertility
Xiaodong Sun,Jing Ma,Yehua Ge,Sai Li,Zuoren Yu,Shepu Xue,Daishu Han
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2002, DOI: 10.1360/02tb9185
Abstract: To study the relations between male infertility and centrosome protein (centrin) and the functions of centrin in spermatogenesis, the matured spermatozoa of 10 normal male people and 18 male infertility patients were stained by immunofluorescence labeling antibody against centrin. The results showed that two fluorescence signal dots appeared in the normal male spermatozoa and were located at the base of flagellum. They are proximal centriole and distal centriole. However, in some spermatozoa of the male infertility, centrin protein was located abnormally at the base of flagellum and its staining signals were spread, the normal proximal and distal centrioles were confused and could not be recognized separately. These results suggest that abnormality of centrosome protein may be related to male infertility. This discovery may be used as a marker of abnormal sperm and male infertility.
Prevalence, Clinical Pattern and Major Causes of Male Infertility in Nnewi, South East Nigeria: A Five YearReview
LA Nwajiaku, II Mbachu, L Ikeako
Afrimedic Journal , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major cause of marital disharmony in Nigeria because of the high premium placed on child bearing. Unfortunately, the blame is on the woman most times. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, clinical pattern and major causes of infertility based on the clinical and laboratory findings of both partners. METHODOLOGY: This is a descriptive retrospective study of 268 infertility cases that presented at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi over a five-year period, between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. RESULTS: Of the 1449 patients that presented at the gynaecology clinic, 268 came because of infertility giving a prevalence of 18.5%. The mean age was 39.1±6.0 years .The majority ( 68% )stopped formal education at the secondary level. Seventy-two percent were employed as unskilled workers. 13% admitted the history of alcohol intake while none took tobacco. The mean duration of infertility was 5 years. The more frequent type of infertility was secondary infertility (59%). The leading cause of male infertility was oligospermia. Male factor infertility alone accounted for 52 (25%)of the cases. CONCLUSION: Contribution of male factor to infertility is high. There is a need for public education on the contribution of male factor to infertility.
Factores causales de infertilidad masculina: Contribución del factor endocrino Causes of male infertility: The contribution of endocrine factors  [cached]
Enzo Devoto C,Marcia Madariaga A,Ximena Lioi C
Revista médica de Chile , 2000,
Abstract: Background: Male infertility is responsible for 35% of infertile couples. Aim: To investigate the causes of male infertility and the relative importance of endocrine factors. Patients and methods: Patients referred to an andrology clinic due to an abnormal spermiogram were studied. A testitular examination, spermiogram and determination of FSH, LH, testosterone and prolactin were done to all. Testicular biopsy was done to patients with severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Causes of infertility were defined and classified as pretesticular, testicular, posttesticular or unclassified. Results: Two hundred fifty seven males were studied. In 3.5% of them, the cause of infertility was defined as pretesticular (that included hypothalamic and pituitary endocrine causes), in 66.9% it was classified as testicular, in 15.6% as posttesticular and in 14%, as unclassified. Thirty percent of infertility cases were idiopathic, 17.9% were associated to varicocele, 12.8% were associated to cryptorchidism, 8.9% to Klinefelter syndrome and 6.6% to exposure to toxic substances. In 50% of patients with cryptorchidism, this abnormality was found during the specialized andrological examination and referrals for surgical correction were made late. Two thirds of patients with Klinefelter syndrome were hypoandrogenic. Conclusions: Causes for male infertility should be investigated and diagnosed accurately. Primary hypoandrogenic testicular failures must be treated with hormone replacement therapy
Male infertility and the present status of its management by drugs  [cached]
Mathur V,Murdia A,Hakim A,Suhalka M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 1979,
Abstract: Infertility is a common problem and in about 40% of childless couples the husband may also need treatment, alone or alongwith the wife. ln India, however, not much attention has been paid to problems of male fertility and traditionally it is the wife who is primarily held at faith. A proper evaluation of every individual patient and exclusion of surgical conditions like varicocele or obstruction are necessary before starting any drug treatment. No stereotyped regime can succeed for each and every case. Andro-gens, gonadotropins, vitamins A & E, antibiotics and anti-inflam-matory agents are well established modes of therapy, but the dose-schedule has to be carefully determined. Some newer androgens (mesterolone and fIuoxymesterone) can be given orally and are very effective in directly stimulating spermatogenesis. Indigenous drugs (Speman) can be of considerable help in properly selected cases. The hypothalamic releasing factors (GH-RH), Bromocrip-tine etc. are still on trial but hold-promise for the future. Thyroid, anti-estrogens (Clomiphen), corticosteroids, arginine and vitamin B 12 are of doubtful value only. Excessive smoking and alcohol ought to be discouraged. Since the beneficial effect of treatment could be only short lived, it is essential that the wife′s fertility is simultaneously assured.
Abnormal expression of cen-trosome protein (centrin) in spermatozoa of male human infertility

SUN Xiaodong,MA Jing,GE Yehua,LI Sai,YU Zuoren,XUE Shepu,HAN Daishu,

科学通报(英文版) , 2002,
Abstract: To study the relations between male infertility and centrosome protein (centrin) and the functions of centrin in spermatogenesis, the matured spermatozoa of 10 normal male people and 18 male infertility patients were stained by immunofluorescence labeling antibody against centrin. The results showed that two fluorescence signal dots appeared in the normal male spermatozoa and were located at the base of flagellum. They are proximal centriole and distal centriole. However, in some spermatozoa of the male infertility, centrin protein was located abnormally at the base of flagellum and its staining signals were spread, the normal proximal and distal centrioles were confused and could not be recognized separately. These results suggest that abnormality of centrosome protein may be related to male infertility. This discovery may be used as a marker of abnormal sperm and male infertility.
Characterization of the mouse Dazap1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein that interacts with infertility factors DAZ and DAZL
Tiane Dai, Yanira Vera, Eduardo C Salido, Pauline H Yen
BMC Genomics , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-2-6
Abstract: The human and mouse genes have similar genomic structures and map to syntenic chromosomal regions. The mouse and human DAZAP1 proteins share 98% identity and their sequences are highly similar to the Xenopus orthologue Prrp, especially in the RBDs. Dazap1 is expressed throughout testis development. Western blot detects a single 45 kD DAZAP1 protein that is most abundant in the testis. Although a majority of DAZAP1 is present in the cytoplasmic fraction, they are not associated with polyribosomes.DAZAP1 is evolutionarily highly conserved. Its predominant expression in testes suggests a role in spermatogenesis. Its subcellular localization indicates that it is not directly involved in mRNA translation.Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which male germ cells progress through mitotic proliferation, meiotic division and dramatic morphological changes to form mature sperm. This process is vital for the propagation of a species, and involves a large portion of the genome of an organism to ensure the quality and quantity of the final products. It is estimated that mutations in up to 11% of all genes in Drosophila might lead to male sterility [1]. This is likely to be true for humans also, considering the extremely high incidence (4–5%) of infertility in men [2]. Among the genes associated with male infertility is the DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) gene family. The family includes the Y-linked DAZ genes that are present only in great apes and old world monkeys [3], and the autosomal DAZL1 (DAZ-like 1) and BOULE genes [4,5] in all mammals. Deletion of the DAZ genes is found in about 10% of infertile males with idiopathic azoospermia [2], and disruption of Dazl1 causes infertility in both male and female mice [6]. Mutations in the DAZ family members of Drosophila[7], C. elegans[8], and Xenopus[9] also affect the fertility in either males, females, or both sexes.The DAZ gene family encodes RNA binding proteins that are expressed specifically in germ cells. DAZ
Determination of Lipid Peroxidation in Human Seminal Plasma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Its Diagnostic Value of Male Infertility
高效液相色谱法测定精浆中过氧化脂质水平及其在男性不育症研究中的应用

LI Ke,SHANG Xuejun,CHEN Yonggang,
李克
,商学军,陈永刚

色谱 , 2004,
Abstract: A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) in human seminal plasma. After human seminal plasma was hydrolyzed, MDA, one of the hydrolysis products, reacted with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to form MDA (TBA)2, a red-colored adduct with a maximum absorbance at 532 nm. HPLC separation of the adduct in human seminal plasma was performed on a Lichrospher C18 column. A mobile phase composed of 0.025 mol/L KH2PO4 (pH 6.2)-methanol in 58:42 (v/v) was found to be the most suitable ratio for this separation at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and enabled the baseline separation of the adduct with isocratic elution. Under the chromatographic conditions described, the MDA-TBA adduct had a retention time of approximately 4 min, and good separation and detectability of MDA in human seminal plasma samples were obtained. The method proved to be linear in the range of MDA from 0.10 micromol/L to 2.50 micromol/L. The relative standard deviations of MDA analysis within- and between-assay were 3.1% (n = 7) and 3.8% (n = 5), respectively. The average recoveries were 90.0% -98.8% for the human seminal plasma samples. The method has been successfully applied to the study of male infertility induced by overproduction of lipid peroxidation in male reproductive system. Exception of obstructive azoospermic group, MDA concentrations of seminal plasma in control group made very significant difference from those in other infertile groups (P < 0.01).
The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility
EK Oghagbon, SS Taiwo, MO Buhari, DP Oparinde
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: Male infertility is receiving increasing attention in Africa as up to 50% of cases of infertility are ascribed to it. In the management of this condition, the clinical laboratory plays a crucial role especially in the proper identification of causes of infertility. The role of the pathologists in this respect stems from the choice of laboratory equipment, reagents, type of samples needed, proper sample collection and its preparation. Added to these functions, the pathologist should help in the proper selection of required tests so as to ensure optimum diagnosis and treatment efficiency. Semen analysis is the first test required in the laboratory assessment of the infertile male. The obtained spermogram serves as the pivot for further tests which include hormonal assays, tissue studies and karyotyping. There is a disturbing high prevalence of azoospermia among Nigerians. The expected laboratory evaluation and treatment of such patients and others with abnormal spermogram are discussed in this review. Key Words: Male infertility, review. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. Vol.6(1) 2005: 69-76
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