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Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation  [PDF]
Markus Andreas Strodl, Peter Schausberger
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043590
Abstract: Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro?. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.
Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites  [PDF]
Takeshi Suzuki
Insects , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/insects3041126
Abstract: Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies.
Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship
Yanfang Pei,Lianyou Gui,Wenkai Wang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1) and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1) plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.
Effect of Low-lying Land Environment on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship
Yanfang Pei,Lianyou Gui,Wenkai Wang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: The possible advantage of cotton production established in low-lying land area over intensive culture pond was systematically investigated by comparing the abundance of cotton spider mites on these plants to that in conventional production areas at the Jiangbei farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. Cotton fields (Ezamian No. 24F1) recently grown at low-lying land area supported significantly lower populations of cotton spider mites than conventional long established cotton fields. There were no significant differences in mite populations between cotton fields established in low-lying land area in the current year or 1 or 2 years earlier. The pest control advantage provided by pond areas was present whether or not acaricides were used. The total phenolic content of cotton leaves differed occasionally between treatments but did not seem to have affected the abundance of mites. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larva-nymph-adults, the percentage of host plants colonized by cotton spider mites and the plant damage index were independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are discussed in relation to integrated pest management and the mineral balance hypothesis.
New Brazilian spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae)
Paschoal, Adilson D.;
Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz , 1970, DOI: 10.1590/S0071-12761970000100032
Abstract: seven species of spider mites namely, tetranyohus (t.) paschoali paschoal, 1970, tetranyohus (t.) esoolastioae paschoal, 1970, tetranyohus (t.) zamithi paschoal, 1970, oligonyohus (0.) anonae paschoal, 1970, mononyohus bondari paschoal, 1970, mononyohus ohemosetosus paschoal, 1970, and allonyohus reisi paschoal, 1970, are described. the male allotype of allonychus braziliensis (mcgregor, 1950) is described and the female redescribed. these species were described as new in a thesis submited to escola superior de agricultura "luiz de queiroz", university of s?o paulo, brazil, on june 13, 1970.
Observation of predation of the giant fishing spider Ancylometes rufus (Walckenaer, 1837) (Araneae, Ctenidae) on Dendropsophus melanargyreus Cope, 1877 (Anura, Hylidae)
Moura, Mário Ribeiro;Azevedo, Leonardo Pimenta;
Biota Neotropica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032011000400028
Abstract: we report here an observation of predation of the giant spider ancylometes rufus on the tree frog dendropsophus melanargyreus in a southern region of amazonia forest. we also reviewed the available literature on predation of this spider species on vertebrates.
Effect of a microbial-based acaricidal product on spotted and predatory spider mites
M Lagziri, A El Amrani
African Crop Science Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Tetranychus urticae is one of the most important pests of strawberry cultures in Morocco. Current control of this pest relies almost exclusively on acaricides. Unfortunately, this mite has developed resistance to most of the available acaricides. Moreover, insecticide treatments are responsible for the reduction or suppression of beneficial species such as natural predators. Thus, identification of selective pesticides that are more toxic to pest species than on natural enemies, is urgently needed. This study assessed the effectiveness of abamectin, a microbial-based miticide, and bifenthrin, a synthetic one, on two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the direct and residual effects of two miticides (abamectin and bifenthrin) at several doses in geometric progression. Firstly, the direct efficacy of the two acaricides was evaluated against T. urticae and P. persimilis. Abamectin had high efficacy on T. urticae and significantly less toxicity against P. persimilis. Results indicated an effective control of T. urticae, at least 2 weeks after abamectin foliar application. Thus, abamectin could be recommended as a selective acaricide in integrated mite management programmes because of its strong efficacy on pests, its persistence and its limited toxicity on predatory mites.
Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites
Maluf, Wilson Roberto;Inoue, Irene Fumi;Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte;Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto;Castro, Evaristo Mauro de;Cardoso, Maria das Gra?as;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2007000900003
Abstract: the objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between lycopersicon esculentum x l. hirsutum var. glabratum pi 134417. trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross l. esculentum x l. hirsutum var. glabratum pi 134417. counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types iv and vi, other glandular types (types i+vii), and nonglandular types. mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type vi) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites.
Spider mites associated to soybean in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Roggia, Samuel;Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carús;Kuss, Rejane Cristina Roppa;Arnemann, Jonas André;Návia, Denise;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2008000300002
Abstract: the objective of this work was to study the occurrence and geographic distribution of phytophagous mites associated to soybean in rio grande do sul, brazil. samplings were performed from january to may 2005 on genetically modified soybean (glyphosate-tolerant) crops, in 27 municipalities of six regions - alto vale do uruguai, campanha, depress?o central, planalto médio, miss?es and serra do sudeste. five phytophagous mite species belonging to the family tetranychidae - mononychellus planki, tetranychus desertorum, t. gigas, t. ludeni and t. urticae - occurred in 21, 12, 5, 3 and 14 municipalities, respectively. a map of rio grande do sul with the geographic distribution of each species is presented, as well as an illustrated dichotomous key to help the identification of the spider mites found.
Rediscovery of Tetranychus abacae Baker & Pritchard, additional description and notes on South American spider mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae)
Flechtmann, Carlos H.W;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81751996000300005
Abstract: the rediscovery of tetranychus abacae baker & pritchard, 1962 is reported and additional description and drawings presented. new host and distribution records for 19 species of spider mites (tctranychidae) in south america are given.
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