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A survey of indigenous herbal diarrhoeal remedies of O.R. Tambo district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
MA Bisi-Johnson, CL Obi, L Kambizi, M Nkomo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Indigenous health system and the use of herbal plants have been recognized as pivotal in primary health care and a system to reckon with in achieving one of the targets of the millennial goals on health. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to identify indigenous herbal remedies for diarrhoea and associated stomach ailments in rural areas of the O.R. Tambo district municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The main objective of the study was to gather ethnomedical data on potentially valuable indigenous medicinal plants for the eventual development of new pharmaceuticals and also emphasize the role of ethnomedicine in primary health care. The use of herbal remedies in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery was investigated using interviews. The survey was conducted among traditional healers and knowledgeable local elders who use medicinal plants to treat common illnesses. Data from the survey indicated the names of plants commonly used in the treatment of diarrhoea and associated ailments, the methods of preparation, parts used and administration. A total of 32 plant species belonging to 26 families were reportedly used as diarrhoea remedy in the study area. The most predominant families of medicinal plants employed and most frequently recommended were Fabaceae (16.67%), followed by Hyacinthaceae and Hydnoraceae (8.33% each). The most commonly utilized portions of plants for medicinal purposes included roots and leaves. Other parts were corms, bulbs, tubers, fruits and bark. The methods of preparation often employed were decoctions and infusions whilst medication was frequently administered orally or as enema. Some of the plants were used singly or mixed with other plant(s) while some edible ones are consumed as food. The survey documented a diversity of plants employed as remedy for diarrhoea. Integration of this form of health care system into western medicine is warranted. The propagation of such medicinal plants is vital for sustainable use of these medicinal plants.
PRODUCCIóN MáS LIMPIA Y VIABILIDAD DE TRATAMIENTO BIOLóGICO PARA EFLUENTES DE MATADEROS EN PEQUE AS LOCALIDADES: Caso: Municipio de El Tambo (Colombia) CLEANER PRODUCTION AND FEASIBILITY OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR SLAUGHTERHOUSES EFFLUENTS IN SMALL TOWNS: Case: Municipality of Tambo (Colombia)  [cached]
GUILLERMO CHAUX,GLORIA L ROJAS,LINA BOLA?OS
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2009,
Abstract: Se evaluó la viabilidad de tratamiento biológico para el efluente del matadero del municipio de El Tambo (Cauca) y se propuso la implementación de procesos de producción más limpia (PML) en cuanto al uso del agua y algunos subproductos generados por esta central de sacrificio. Se llevaron a cabo jornadas de inspección sanitaria, aforos de caudal, cuantificación volumétrica de subproductos y análisis fisicoquímicos que incluyen: DBO5, DQO, SST, Nitrógeno Total, Fósforo Total, grasas y aceites, temperatura y pH. Se registra un elevado consumo de agua: 200 litros/cerdo y 1880 litros/res (superiores a los promedios del matadero de Popayán-Cauca: 100 L/cerdo y 500 L/res); valores de parámetros de contaminación: 9024 mg/L DQO, 1829 mg/L DBO5, 1357 mg/L SST, 889 mg/L N, 26 mg/L P, 79 mg/L de grasas y aceites, pH de 7.6. Producción de 23 L/bovino de rumen y 28 L/bovino de sangre. El efluente es de difícil biodegradabilidad; sin embargo, el tratamiento biológico anaeróbico es viable mediante una eliminación previa de grasas y rumen, colectándolos por separado mediante un estricto tratamiento preliminar. Antes del dise o de la planta de tratamiento de agua residual deben implementarse procesos de PML, con el fin de reducir el gasto masivo de agua y buscar una adecuada disposición y buen uso de subproductos. Was evaluated the feasibility of biological treatment for the effluent from the slaughterhouse in the municipality of El Tambo (Cauca) and proposed the implementation of cleaner production processes (CPP) in the use of water and some byproducts generated by the plant for slaughter. Conducted workshops for health inspection, flow capacities, volumetric quantification and analysis of physic-chemical byproducts that include BOD5, COD, TSS, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, fats and oils, temperature and pH. There are high water consumption: 200 liters/pork and 1800 liters/bovine (higher than the averages of the slaughterhouse of Popayán-Cauca: 100 L / pig and 500 L/bovine); values of pollution parameters: 9024 mg/L COD, 1829 mg/L BOD5, 1357 mg/L TSS, 889 mg/L N, 26 mg/L P, 79 mg/L oil and grease, pH 7.6. Production of 23 L/bovine ruminal content and 28 L/bovine of blood. The effluent is not readily biodegradable; however, the biological anaerobic treatment is viable means after removal of fat and rumen collected separately by a strict preliminary treatment. Before the design of the wastewater treatment plant CPP must be implemented to reduce the massive consumption of water and seek a proper and good use of available products.
Epidemiological studies of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) in indigenous communities of Pauini municipality, Amazonas, Brazil
Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes;Py-Daniel, Victor;Barbosa, Ulysses Carvalho;Farias, Emanuelle de Souza;
Acta Amazonica , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672007000200010
Abstract: the mansonella ozzardi has a widespread distribution among the indigenous and riverine communities of amazonas, brazil. we estimated the prevalence of mansonella ozzardi in indigenous communities of the pauini municipality, amazonas state, brazil and the rate of parasitic infection in vectors. we collected thick blood smears from individuals from six apurin? indigenous communities along the purus river and its tributaries. collections of simuliids were made and dissected, and the larval instars of m. ozzardi identified. the overall prevalence of m. ozzardi was 28.40%, with the highest incidence among males and agricultural workers. among age groups, children 2-9 years of age had the lowest incidence, while individuals older than 58 exhibited the highest rates of infection. we found infected simuliids in three communities, with parasitic infection rates (pir) of 0.34-6.58%. the prevalence of m. ozzardi among the apurin? people is high, possibly related to the diary activities of the riparian people, where a high abundance of the vectors exists.
Suicide mortality in S?o Gabriel da Cachoeira, a predominantly indigenous Brazilian municipality
Souza, Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de;Orellana, Jesem Douglas Yamall;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462012000100007
Abstract: abstract objective: to describe the characteristics and the raw suicide mortality rates (rsmr) during the period 2000-2007 in the municipality with the largest proportion of self-reported indigenous people in brazil, s?o gabriel da cachoeira (sgc), state of amazonas. method: a retrospective descriptive study was carried out using data from the information department of the brazilian unified health system (datasus). we considered suicide the cause of death coded in the records as voluntary self-inflicted injuries according to the international classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision. results: forty-four suicide cases were registered in this period. the average rsmr was 16.8 per 100,000 inhabitants (male, 26.6; female, 6.3). the highest rates were observed in the age groups 15-24 years and 25-34 years, with rsmr of 43.1 and 30.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. most suicides occurred among indigenous people (97.7%), males (81.8%), and unmarried people (70.5%). in most cases, deaths occurred at home (86.4%), during weekends (59.1%) and mainly by hanging (97.7%). conclusion: suicide is a significant health and social problem in sgc. the suicide profile observed in this municipality was, as a whole, more similar to that observed in certain indigenous communities than that found in most urban and non-indigenous environments, demonstrating the sociocultural specificity of these events in brazil.
Biosynthesis of Antitumoral and Bactericidal Sanguinarine
Víctor P. García,F. Valdés,R. Martín,J. C. Luis,A. M. Afonso,J. H. Ayala
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/jbb/2006/63518
Abstract: A simple, rapid, and reliable TLC method for the separation and determination of sanguinarine has been established. This intensively studied biologically active alkaloid has a wide range of potentially useful medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antitumoral activities. Sanguinarine has also been incorporated into expectorant mixtures and has a strong bactericidal effect upon gram-positive bacteria, particularly Bacillus anthracis and staphylococci. These medicinal properties are due to the interaction of sanguinarine with DNA. A fibre-optic-based fluorescence instrument for in situ scanning was used for quantitative measurements. The sanguinarine was determined over the range 5–40 ng and a detection limit of 1.60 ng. The method was applied to the quantification of sanguinarine in tissue culture extracts of Chelidonium majus L.
Biosynthesis of Antitumoral and Bactericidal Sanguinarine  [cached]
F. Valdés,R. Martín,J. C. Luis,A. M. Afonso
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: A simple, rapid, and reliable TLC method for the separation and determination of sanguinarine has been established. This intensively studied biologically active alkaloid has a wide range of potentially useful medicinal properties, such as antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antitumoral activities. Sanguinarine has also been incorporated into expectorant mixtures and has a strong bactericidal effect upon gram-positive bacteria, particularly Bacillus anthracis and staphylococci. These medicinal properties are due to the interaction of sanguinarine with DNA. A fibre-optic-based fluorescence instrument for in situ scanning was used for quantitative measurements. The sanguinarine was determined over the range 5–40 ng and a detection limit of 1.60 ng. The method was applied to the quantification of sanguinarine in tissue culture extracts of Chelidonium majus L.
Malaria control in an Amazon municipality
Rodrigues, Eliane da Costa;Lopes Neto, David;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692011000600004
Abstract: this study aimed to evaluate the organization of malaria control actions in the indigenous population of the municipality of s?o gabriel da cachoeira, amazonas, am, brazil, from 2003 to 2007. this is an ecological study to evaluate the impact of control measures. statistical analysis of the indicators revealed that the number of cases showed an increasing trend, with the highest numbers occurring in the rural areas. the same trend was observed for the annual parasite index (api), however the highest apis were found in the urban areas. the proportion of cases caused by plasmodium falciparum showed a reduction. hospitalization and mortality rates presented fluctuations and the fatality rate decreased. the findings indicate that control actions have proved partially effective and that they have provided a broader capacity to detect cases and to provide immediate treatment. although the municipality still presents a high risk for transmission, the pluriannual plan in progress seems to have a good prognosis for the control of the disease, if maintained in a sustainable and permanent way.
PRODUCCIóN MáS LIMPIA Y VIABILIDAD DE TRATAMIENTO BIOLóGICO PARA EFLUENTES DE MATADEROS EN PEQUE?AS LOCALIDADES: Caso: Municipio de El Tambo (Colombia)
CHAUX,GUILLERMO; ROJAS,GLORIA L; BOLA?OS,LINA;
Biotecnología en el Sector Agropecuario y Agroindustrial , 2009,
Abstract: was evaluated the feasibility of biological treatment for the effluent from the slaughterhouse in the municipality of el tambo (cauca) and proposed the implementation of cleaner production processes (cpp) in the use of water and some byproducts generated by the plant for slaughter. conducted workshops for health inspection, flow capacities, volumetric quantification and analysis of physic-chemical byproducts that include bod5, cod, tss, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, fats and oils, temperature and ph. there are high water consumption: 200 liters/pork and 1800 liters/bovine (higher than the averages of the slaughterhouse of popayán-cauca: 100 l / pig and 500 l/bovine); values of pollution parameters: 9024 mg/l cod, 1829 mg/l bod5, 1357 mg/l tss, 889 mg/l n, 26 mg/l p, 79 mg/l oil and grease, ph 7.6. production of 23 l/bovine ruminal content and 28 l/bovine of blood. the effluent is not readily biodegradable; however, the biological anaerobic treatment is viable means after removal of fat and rumen collected separately by a strict preliminary treatment. before the design of the wastewater treatment plant cpp must be implemented to reduce the massive consumption of water and seek a proper and good use of available products.
Analysis of the bactericidal effect of ozone pneumoperitoneum
Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder;Garotti, José Eduardo Rosseto;Silva, Renata Santos Bittencourt;Navarini, Alessandra;Pacheco Jr, Adhemar Monteiro;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502009000200009
Abstract: purpose: to assess the bactericidal action of ozone pneumoperitonium, and to compare the results with co2. methods: it was used 36 wistar rats. the animals, under anesthesia, were inoculated with 2ml of e. coli atcc at a concentration of 1010ufc, and 1ml of baso4, into the peritoneal cavity. they were divided into three groups: group 1, co2 pneumoperitoneum was performed for 15 minutes; group 2, ozone pneumoperitoneum was performed for 5 minutes at a concentration of 42μg/ml, and group 3, ozone pneumoperitoneum was performed for 5 minutes at a concentration of 62μg/ml. six animals from each group were sacrificed after the experiment, and the remaining 6 observed for 24 hours. material was collected from the cavity of all animals for microbiological study. results: ozone presented a greater bactericidal effect than co2 in those animals sacrificed immediately after pneumoperitoneum. in the animals studied 24 hours after pneumoperitoneum evidenced no difference in bactericidal effect between the two gases. moreover, no difference in mortality was observed. conclusion: ozone has a more potent bactericidal effect than carbon dioxide gas, although this did not influence survival of the animals.
Curious Case of Bactericidal Action of ZnO  [PDF]
Somnath Ghosh,R. Gowri Sankar,V. Vandana
Journal of Nanoscience , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/343467
Abstract: ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are well known for their bactericidal properties. Various mechanisms are proposed for their bactericidal activity. An ambiguity still prevails to know which mechanism or property is mainly influencing the bactericidal activity of ZnO NPs. The antibacterial properties of ZnO NPs were investigated against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Different ZnO samples with different degrees of surface oxygen vacancies were prepared from ZnO2. The surface oxygen vacancy and thereby reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in aqueous ZnO solution are quantified by photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping experiments, respectively. Systematic experiments have been performed to validate a precise antibacterial mechanism of ZnO particle. 1. Introduction The rapid development of nanotechnology emerges in a diverse range of nanomaterials and nanoproducts [1]. Various desired targets have been accomplished in order to employ materials in medicinal fields by maneuvering them at their atomic size scale [2, 3] through nanotechnology. Unfortunately, many such benevolent materials develop toxicity. As toxicities are selective to biological systems, nanomaterials are well exploited for antibacterial applications. To combat bacterial infections metal and metal oxide NPs in various forms are well studied [4–15]. The exposure of such NPs in the environment demands a fundamental understanding about their mode and range of toxicity. Their mode or modes of action towards bacteria remained ambiguous. ZnO NPs have been extensively used as antibacterial agents for water purification [16–19], biofilm prevention [20–22], sunscreen lotion [23, 24], wound dressing [25], and so forth. Protection against intestinal bacterial infections by bulk ZnO was reported in late 1990s [26, 27] though its bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, etc.) was revealed little late when ZnO NPs were exposed to bacterial solution [28–32]. Although the antimicrobial properties of ZnO NPs have been utilized to kill bacteria in different issues, their mechanistic pathways are still imprecise. The mechanisms of antibacterial property of ZnO NPs so far proposed are as follows: (i) physical attack of ZnO NPs on the bacteria [18, 33, 34] (ZnO NPs can adhere to the bacterial cell wall surface and eventually pierce into cell leading to bacterial death by membrane disruption), (ii) oxidative stress generated by particles in solutions
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