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Green Approach for In-Situ Growth of CdS Nanorods in Low Band Gap Polymer Network for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications  [PDF]
Ramil K. Bhardwaj, Vishal Bharti, Abhishek Sharma, Dibyajyoti Mohanty, Vikash Agrawal, Nakul Vats, Gauri D. Sharma, Neeraj Chaudhary, Shilpa Jain, Jitender Gaur, Kamalika Banerjee, Suresh Chand
Advances in Nanoparticles (ANP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/anp.2014.33015
Abstract:
In-situ growth of CdS nanorods (NRs) has been demonstrated via solvothermal, in a low band gap polymer, poly [[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy] benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b’] dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl) carbonyl] thieno [3,4-b] thiophenediyl]] (PTB7). It is a high yielding, green approach as it removes use of volatile and hazardous chemicals such as pyridine as ligand which are conventionally used to synthesize precursors of CdS (NRs). Moreover the solvothermal process is a zero emission process being a close vessel synthesis and hence no material leaching into the atmosphere during the synthesis. The PTB7:CdS nanocomposite has been characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy techniques. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of PTB7 with CdS NRs has shown significant PL quenching by the incorporation of CdS NRs in PTB7; this shows that CdS NRs are efficient electron acceptors with the PTB7. The PTB7:CdS is used as active layer in the fabrication of hybrid solar cells (HSC) as donor-acceptor combination in the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) geometry. The HSCs fabricated using this active layer without any additional supporting fullerene based electron acceptor has given power conversion efficiency of above 1%.
Preparation and properties of CdS/Au composite nanorods and hollow Au tubes
ZhaoHui Yang,HaiBin Chu,Zhong Jin,WeiWei Zhou,Yan Li
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-0061-2
Abstract: 1-dimensional (1D) metal-semiconductor nano-scale composite superstructures based on Au nanoparticles and CdS nanorods were prepared. The outer surface of CdS nanorods was modified with mercapto-ethylamine (MEA) in advance. With the aid of MEA, dense and uniform Au nanoparticles were deposited onto the external wall of CdS nanorods through in situ chemical reduction of AuCl4 ions. Those Au nanoparticles induced further electroless deposition and a continuous layer of Au was formed on CdS nanorods. Stable hollow Au tubes were obtained after the inner CdS cores were etched by HCl. UV-Vis, FL, XPS, EDX, TEM and SEM measurements were carried out to characterize the produced materials. The quenching of the defect emission of CdS in CdS-nanorod/Au-nanoparticle hybrid superstructures was detected, which was ascribed to the energy transfer from the exciton of CdS to surface plasma resonance level of Au.
Photovoltaic Devices from Multi-Armed CdS Nanorods and Conjugated Polymer Composites
LIU Yan-Shan,WANG Li,QIN Dong-Huan,CAO Yong,
刘艳山
,王藜,覃东欢,曹镛

中国物理快报 , 2006,
Abstract: We demonstrate the preparation of composite photovoltaic devices by using the blends of multi-armed CdS nanorods with conjugated polymer, poly2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV). Multi-armed CdS nanorods are prepared by thermolysing single precursor cadmium ethylxanthate Cd(exan)2] in pure hexadecylamine solution under ambient conditions. The photoluminescence of MEH-PPV can be effectively quenched in the composites at high CdS nanocrystal (nc-CdS)//MEH-PPV ratios. Post-treatment of the multi-armed CdS nanorods by refluxing in pyridine significantly increases the performance of the composite photovoltaic devices. Power conversion efficiency is obtained to be 0.17% under AM 1.5 illumination for this composite device.
Trioctylphosphine as Both Solvent and Stabilizer to Synthesize CdS Nanorods  [cached]
Chen Shutang,Zhang Xiaoling,Zhang Qiuhua,Tan Weihong
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2009,
Abstract: High quality CdS nanorods are synthesized reproducibly with cadmium acetate and sulfur as precursors in trioctylphosphine solution. The morphology, crystalline form and phase composition of CdS nanorods are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD). CdS nanorods obtained are uniform with an aspect ratio of about 5:1 and in a wurtzite structure. The influence of reaction conditions on the growth of CdS nanorods demonstrates that low precursor concentration and high reaction temperature (260 °C) are favorable for the formation of uniform CdS nanorods with 85.3% of product yield.
Fabrication and spectroscopic studies on highly luminescent CdSe/CdS nanorod polymer composites
Jana Bomm,Andreas Büchtemann,Angela Fiore,Liberato Manna
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 2010, DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.1.11
Abstract: Highly luminescent nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods into different polymer matrices. The resulting nanocomposites show high transparency of up to 93%. A photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 70% was obtained, with an optimum combination of nanorod (0.05 wt %) and at a UV-initiator concentration of 0.1 wt % for poly(lauryl methacrylate). Nanorods tend to agglomerate in cellulose triacetate.
Controlled nucleation and growth of CdS nanoparticles in a polymer matrix  [PDF]
T. Di Luccio,A. M. Laera,L. Tapfer,S. Kempter,R. Kraus,B. Nickel
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1021/jp061003m
Abstract: The nucleation and growth of CdS nanoparticles within a polymer matrix was followed by in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles form by effect of the thermolysis of thiolate precursors at temperatures between 200 and 300 Celsius degrees. Above 240 Celsius degrees the precursor decomposition is complete and CdS nanoparticles grow in the polymer matrix forming a nanocomposite with interesting optical properties. The nanoparticle structural properties (size and crystal structure) depend on the annealing temperature.(abridged version)
Solvothermal synthesis of CdS nanorods and photovoltaic characteristics of CdS/PVK composite system
YanLing Ji,Ke Cheng,HongMei Zhang,XingTang Zhang,YunCai Li,ZuLiang Du
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0506-4
Abstract: Large quantities of CdS nanorods are successfully synthesized through Cd(CH3COO)2·2H2O reacting with Na2S·9H2O and EDA in aqueous solution. XRD result shows that the sample is of hexagonal structure. And TEM result shows that the morphologies of the resulting CdS are mainly in three-armed rod-like structure with a diameter of 10–15 nm and a length of 100 nm. The nanocomposites of CdS/PVK with different molar ratios are prepared by spin coating method on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrate. A notable decrease of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and a significant enhancement of surface photovoltage signal have been observed in CdS/PVK composites when the molar fraction of CdS increases. We interpret these results as the energy level matching between CdS and PVK in nanocomposites. This energy level matching facilitates fast interfacial charge transfer then increases the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and the carrier generation efficiency. The detailed charge transfer process has also been demonstrated.
Solvothermal synthesis of CdS nanorods and photovoltaic characteristics of CdS/PVK composite system
JI YanLing,CHENG Ke,ZHANG HongMei,ZHANG XingTang,LI YunCai,DU ZuLiang,

科学通报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: Large quantities of CdS nanorods are successfully synthesized through Cd(CH3COO)2·2H2O reacting with Na2S·9H2O and EDA in aqueous solution. XRD result shows that the sample is of hexagonal structure. And TEM result shows that the morphologies of the resulting CdS are mainly in three-armed rod-like structure with a diameter of 10–15 nm and a length of 100 nm. The nanocomposites of CdS/PVK with different molar ratios are prepared by spin coating method on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) substrate. A notable decrease of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and a significant enhancement of surface photovoltage signal have been observed in CdS/PVK composites when the molar fraction of CdS increases. We interpret these results as the energy level matching between CdS and PVK in nanocomposites. This energy level matching facilitates fast interfacial charge transfer then increases the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and the carrier generation efficiency. The detailed charge transfer process has also been demonstrated. Supported by Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. NCET-04-0653), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant No. 2007CB616911) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20371015 and 90306010)
Facile solution growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods sensitized with aqueous CdS and CdSe quantum dots for photovoltaic applications  [cached]
Luan Chunyan,Vaneski Aleksandar,Susha Andrei,Xu Xueqing
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2011,
Abstract: Vertically aligned single crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays, approximately 3 μm in length and 50-450 nm in diameter are grown by a simple solution approach on a Zn foil substrate. CdS and CdSe colloidal quantum dots are assembled onto ZnO nanorods array using water-soluble nanocrystals capped as-synthesized with a short-chain bifuncional linker thioglycolic acid. The solar cells co-sensitized with both CdS and CdSe quantum dots demonstrate superior efficiency compared with the cells using only one type of quantum dots. A thin Al2O3 layer deposited prior to quantum dot anchoring successfully acts as a barrier inhibiting electron recombination at the Zn/ZnO/electrolyte interface, resulting in power conversion efficiency of approximately 1% with an improved fill factor of 0.55. The in situ growth of ZnO nanorod arrays in a solution containing CdSe quantum dots provides better contact between two materials resulting in enhanced open circuit voltage.
Ion Exchange Processed CdS Nanorods in Powder Form Using Cadmium Hydroxide Nanowires By Wet Chemical Route  [cached]
Savita L. Patil,Rupali S. chaudhari,Ravindra D. Ladhe,Prashant K. Baviskar
Journal of Scientific Review , 2010,
Abstract: Simple, inexpensive and soft chemical route (wet chemical method) was employed for the synthesis of bulk forms of cadmium hydroxide [Cd(OH)2] nanowires bundles and their conversion to cadmium sulphide [CdS] nanorods at room temperature by simple anion exchange route. Due to difference in solubility product and diffusion rates of the Cd(OH)2 and CdS, the anion exchange reaction was taken place and CdS nanorods were formed. CdS nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Since CdS is semi-conducting material, it has variety of potential applications, this work demonstrates a cost effective method for the synthesis of CdS nanorods in bulk form like CNT.
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