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Extending the utility of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts: Direct arylation of heterocycles  [cached]
Anthony R. Martin,Anthony Chartoire,Alexandra M. Z. Slawin,Steven P. Nolan
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.8.187
Abstract: The use of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts in the direct arylation of heterocycles has been investigated. Among four different precatalysts, [Pd(SIPr)(cinnamyl)Cl] proved to be the most efficient promoter of the reaction. The C–H functionalization of sulfur- or nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved at low catalyst loadings. These catalyst charges range from 0.1 to 0.01 mol % palladium.
PLUTO: Penalized Unbiased Logistic Regression Trees  [PDF]
Wenwen Zhang,Wei-Yin Loh
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: We propose a new algorithm called PLUTO for building logistic regression trees to binary response data. PLUTO can capture the nonlinear and interaction patterns in messy data by recursively partitioning the sample space. It fits a simple or a multiple linear logistic regression model in each partition. PLUTO employs the cyclical coordinate descent method for estimation of multiple linear logistic regression models with elastic net penalties, which allows it to deal with high-dimensional data efficiently. The tree structure comprises a graphical description of the data. Together with the logistic regression models, it provides an accurate classifier as well as a piecewise smooth estimate of the probability of "success". PLUTO controls selection bias by: (1) separating split variable selection from split point selection; (2) applying an adjusted chi-squared test to find the split variable instead of exhaustive search. A bootstrap calibration technique is employed to further correct selection bias. Comparison on real datasets shows that on average, the multiple linear PLUTO models predict more accurately than other algorithms.
Ejecta Transfer in the Pluto System  [PDF]
Simon Porter,William Grundy
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.03.031
Abstract: The small satellites of the Pluto system (Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra) have very low surface escape velocities, and impacts should therefore eject a large amount of material from their surfaces. We show that most of this material then escapes from the Pluto system, though a significant fraction collects on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon. The velocity at which the dust is ejected from the surfaces of the small satellites strongly determines which object it is likely to hit, and where on the surfaces of Pluto and Charon it is most likely to impact. We also show that the presence of an atmosphere around Pluto eliminates most particle size effects and increases the number of dust impacts on Pluto. In total, Pluto and Charon may have accumulated several centimeters of small-satellite dust on their surfaces, which could be observed by the New Horizons spacecraft.
Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse  [PDF]
C. B. Olkin,L. A. Young,D. Borncamp,A. Pickles,B. Sicardy,M. Assafin,F. B. Bianco,M. W. Buie,A. Dias de Oliveira,M. Gillon,R. G. French,A. Ramos Gomes Jr.,E. Jehin,N. Morales,C. Opitom,J. L. Ortiz,A. Maury,M. Norbury,F. B. Ribas,R. Smith,L. H. Wasserman,E. F. Young,M. Zacharias,N. Zacharias
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.
Beyond the New Horizon: The Future of Pluto  [PDF]
Michael B. Lund
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Since its discovery in 1930, Pluto's mass has been a value that has repeatedly been calculated. Additionally, the search for Planet X prior to Pluto's discovery results in mass calculations that date back several decades earlier. Over its observed history, the mass of Pluto has consistently decreased. We reassess earlier predictions of Pluto's fate, and rule out the hypothesis that Pluto's mass has been constant over the last century. We are able to fit linear and quadratic equations to Pluto's mass as a function of both time and distance. The observations that will be made by New Horizons will help to determine if we can expect Pluto to continue to shrink until it has negative mass, or if it will begin to increase in mass again.
Are there rings around Pluto?  [PDF]
J. J. Rawal,Bijan Nikouravan
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Considering effects of tidal plus centrifugal stress acting on icy-rocks and the tensile strength thereof, icy-rocks being in the density range (1-2.4) g cm-3 which had come into existence as collisional ejecta (debris) in the vicinity of Pluto at the time when Pluto-Charon system came into being as a result of a giant impact of a Kuiper Belt Object on the primordial Pluto, it is shown, here, that these rocks going around Pluto in its vicinity are under slow disruption generating a stable ring structure consisting of icy-rocks of diameters in the range (20-90) km, together with fine dust and particles disrupted off the rocks, and spread all over the regions in their respective Roche Zones, various Roche radii being in ~1/2 three-body mean motion resonance. Calculations of gravitational spheres of influence of Pluto which turns out to be 4.2 x 106 km for prograde orbits and 8.5 x 106 km for retrograde orbits together with the existence of Kuiper Belt in the vicinity of Pluto assure that there may exist a few rocks (satellites)/dust rings/sheets so far undiscovered moving in prograde orbits around the planet and few others which are distant ones and move around Pluto in the region between 4.2x106 km and 8.5x106 km in retrograde orbits.
Design of the Pluto Event Generator  [PDF]
I. Froehlich,T. Galatyuk,R. Holzmann,J. Markert,B. Ramstein,P. Salabura,J. Stroth
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/219/3/032039
Abstract: We present the design of the simulation package Pluto, aimed at the study of hadronic interactions at SIS and FAIR energies. Its main mission is to offer a modular framework with an object-oriented structure, thereby making additions such as new particles, decays of resonances, new models up to modules for entire changes easily applicable. Overall consistency is ensured by a plugin- and distribution manager. Particular features are the support of a modular structure for physics process descriptions, and the possibility to access the particle stream for on-line modifications. Additional configuration and self-made classes can be attached by the user without re-compiling the package, which makes Pluto extremely configurable.
On the Roles of Escape Erosion and the Relaxation of Craters on Pluto  [PDF]
S. Alan Stern,Simon Porter,Amanda Zangari
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.12.006
Abstract: Pluto and its satellites will be the most distant objects ever reconnoitered when NASA's New Horizons spacecraft conducts its intensive flyby of this system in 2015. The size-frequency distribution (SFD) of craters on the surfaces in the Pluto system have long been expected to provide a useful measure of the size distribution of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) down to much smaller size scales than presently observed. However, currently predicted escape rates of Pluto's atmosphere suggest that of order one-half to several kilometers of nitrogen ice has been removed from Pluto's surface over geologic time. Because this range of depths is comparable to or greater than most expected crater depths on Pluto, one might expect that many craters on Pluto's surface may have been removed or degraded by this process, biasing the observed crater SFD relative to the production-function crater SFD. Further, if Pluto's surface volatile layer is comparable to or deeper than crater depths, and if the viscosity of this layer surface ice is low like the viscosity of pure N2 ice at Pluto's measured 35 K surface temperature (or as low as the viscosity of CH4 ice at warmer but plausible temperatures on isolated pure-CH4 surfaces on Pluto), then craters on Pluto may also have significantly viscously relaxed, also potentially biasing the observed crater SFD and surface crater retention age. Here we make a first exploration of how these processes can affect the displayed cratering record on Pluto. We find that Pluto's surface may appear to be younger owing to these effects than it actually is. We also find that by comparing Pluto's cratering record to Charon's, it may be possible to estimate the total loss depth of material from Pluto's surface over geologic time, and therefore to estimate Pluto's time-averaged escape rate.
Dynamical capture in the Pluto-Charon system  [PDF]
P. M. Pires dos Santos,A. Morbidelli,D. Nesvorny
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10569-012-9442-y
Abstract: This paper explores the possibility that the progenitors of the small satellites of Pluto got captured in the Pluto-Charon system from the massive heliocentric planetesimal disk in which Pluto was originally embedded into. We find that, if the dynamical excitation of the disk is small, temporary capture in the Pluto-Charon system can occur with non-negligible probability, due to the dynamical perturbations exerted by the binary nature of the Pluto-Charon pair. However, the captured objects remain on very elliptic orbits and the typical capture time is only 100 years. In order to explain the origin of the small satellites of Pluto, we conjecture that some of these objects got disrupted during their Pluto-bound phase by a collision with a planetesimal of the disk. This could have generated a debris disk, which damped under internal collisional evolution, until turning itself into an accretional disk that could form small satellites on circular orbits, co-planar with Charon. Unfortunately, we find that objects large enough to carry a sufficient amount of mass to generate the small satellites of Pluto have collisional lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the capture time. Thus, this scenario cannot explain the origin of the small satellites of Pluto, which remains elusive.
Methane and Nitrogen Abundances On Pluto and Eris  [PDF]
S. C. Tegler,D. M. Cornelison,W. M. Grundy,W. Romanishin,M. R. Abernathy,M. J. Bovyn,J. A. Burt,D. E. Evans,C. K. Maleszewski,Z. Thompson,F. Vilas
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/1296
Abstract: We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 meter telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 angstroms; 5 angstroms per pix) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 meter telescope and Boller and Chivens spectrograph (7100-9400 angstroms; 2 angstroms per pix) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983), and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are about 10% and about 90%, and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are about 3% and about 97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 micron band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.
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