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Physiological Quality and Seed Production of Corn and Fabaceae in Monoculture and Intercropping  [PDF]
Anna C. S. de Oliveira, Fábio Cunha Coelho, Henrique Duarte Vieira, Jocarla Ambrosim Crevelari, áurea Izabel Aguiar Fonseca e Souza, Tiago Massi Ferraz, Ant?nia Alice Costa Rodrigues
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.811175
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality and seed production of Fabaceae and corn in monoculture and intercropping in areas cropped under different management. The following treatments were evaluated: corn + NPK + weed control; corn + weed control; corn + NPK; corn + crotalaria; corn + jack bean. Intercropping raised the average number of corn ears of corn and the seed IVG Weed control positively influenced the final stand and average number of ears. NPK fertilization on corn sowing positively influenced the seed electrical conductivity. The yield of corn plants intercropped with crotalaria and jack bean was statistically similar. However, their absolute values should be considered for economic purposes. Corn seeds derived from intercropping with crotalaria were more effective compared with intercropping with jack bean. Crotalaria and jack bean seeds when intercropped with corn have high production, germination and vigor (IVG and emergence).
Benefit of sweet corn/soybean intercropping in Guangdong Province

LI Zhi-Xian,WANG Jian-Wu,YANG Wen-Ting,SHU Lei,DU Qing,LIU Li-Ling,

中国生态农业学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of sweet corn/soybean intercropping on yield, agronomic indices, and nutrient and radiation use efficiency of sweet corn. Results show a high land equivalent ratio (1.07) for sweet corn/soybean intercropping, indicating a certain degree of yield advantage. Compared with the monoculture, the intercropping significantly increases sweet corn 1000-grain weight by 17.88%, economic benefit by 24.08%, and nutrient use efficiency by 54.09%. Intercropping positively influences radiation use efficiency during the later stage of growth. There is 28.44% increase in radiation use efficiency 55 days after sowing. Therefore sweet corn/soybean intercropping has significant economic and environmental benefits. It not only improves population structure and resource use efficiency of sweet corn, but also reduces fertilizer application.
Forage Quality of Cow Pea (Vigna sinensis) Intercropped with Corn (Zea mays) as Affected by Nutrient Uptake and Light Interception  [cached]
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: An experiment was carried out in 2003 to investigate the effect of intercropping on light interception, nutrient uptake and forage quality of cow pea. A randomized complete block design (RCB) with three replications was employed to compare the treatments, including cow pea sole crop (Cp), corn sole crop (C), alternate-row intercropping (M1), within-row intercropping (M2) and mixed intercropping (M3). The intercrop composition was based on replacement design, where one corn was replaced by three cow pea plants. The results indicated that PAR (photosyntheticaly active radiation) interception and nutrient uptake were improved by intercropping. Cow pea was more competitive than corn in absorbing divalent cations (Ca and Mg) for its high root cation exchange capacity. However, corn was more competitive than cow pea for phosphorus and potassium. Forage quality of cow pea in terms of crude protein was decreased in intercropping compared to its sole crop. It was related to reduction of biological nitrogen fixation induced by low PAR and phosphorus availability for cow pea in intercropping.
Effects of maize/peanut intercropping on rhizosphere soil microbes and nutrient contents

ZHANG Jia-en,GAO Ai-xia,XU Hua-qin,LUO Ming-zhu,

应用生态学报 , 2009,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of maize/peanut intercropping on the rhizosphere soil microbial community and nutrient contents. Three treatments were installed, i.e., maize/peanut intercropping, maize monoculture, and peanut monoculture. Comparing with monoculture, intercropping could significantly increase the quantity of soil bacteria in both maize and peanut root areas. The numbers of soil actinomyces and fungi had no significant differences in the root areas of intercropped and mono-cultured peanut, but were much higher in intercropped than in mono-cultured maize root area. The functional diversity and metabolic activity of soil microbial community also improved under intercropping. Maize/peanut intercropping increased the soil alkali-hydrolysable N, available P and organic matter contents and EC to some extent, especially in the root area of maize. All the results suggested that maize/peanut intercropping could obviously improve the status of soil microbes and nutrients in root areas, which in turn, would promote the growth of intercropped crops.
Effect of Plant Density and Mixing Ratio on Crop Yield in Sweet Corn/Mungbean Intercropping  [PDF]
S. Sarlak,M. Aghaalikhani,B. Zand
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m-2 for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m-2 for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p<0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it`s maximum rate of total sweet corn`s biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture.
The effect of intercropping Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst., millet and corn in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
BO Muok, A Matsumura, T Ishii, DW Odee
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (marula) is native to Africa occurring in the semi-arid, deciduous savannas of much of sub-Saharan Africa. It has multiple uses, including the fruits, kernels, oil, bark, wood and leaves which make it a key species to support the development of rural enterprises. Enhancing positive interactions between marula and other crops is key to successful introduction of marula into the farming systems in the arid and semiarid areas of Africa. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of various combinations of marula, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. (millet) and Zea mays (corn) with one another when inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. A threechambered acrylic root boxes were used. One outer chamber contained seedlings of S. birrea while the other contained millet or corn or bare soil. The central chamber was either inoculated with an AM fungus (Gigaspora margarita Baker and Hall) or uninoculated. Inoculation in the presence of the two crops enhanced both biomass production and height growth of marula seedlings. Both hyphal density and number of spores in marula compartments were increased under intercropping system compared to marula monoculture. The study demonstrated that intercropping marula with millet or corn could help in the propagation of AM fungi spores in the soil which would enhance marula establishment especially in soil with low phosphorous and moisture scarcity.
Intercropping corn and kudzu in a rotation system with soybean
Correia, Núbia Maria;Daniel, Bruno;Leite, Marcela Basile;
Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v34i3.13119
Abstract: the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing procedures and the seed sowing rate of kudzu (pueraria phaseoloides cv. 'comum') in corn on corn plant development, forage dry matter production, weed infestation and soybean plant development and yield. the kudzu seeds were either broadcasted over the terrain or sown in furrows (in the main plots) at rates, in both cases, of 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 points of cultural value (on the subplots). singly cultivated corn was considered the control treatment. intercropping did not cause corn plant development to show any significant difference compared with that of the singly cultivated corn plants. when sown in furrows, the number and dry matter contents of the kudzu plants were higher than sowing by broadcasting. the number of plants and the dry matter of the plants increased with the number of seeds. prior to sowing soybean, the incidence of weeds decreased as the number of kudzu seeds at sowing increased. the intercropping of corn with kudzu benefited soybean plant population, plant height, and grain yield in comparison with the single cultivating of corn in the previous year.
Intercropping of Green Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Induces Nutrient Concentration Changes in the Soil and Plants in Continuously Cropped Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Plastic Tunnel  [PDF]
Xuemei Xiao, Zhihui Cheng, Huanwen Meng, Lihong Liu, Hezi Li, Yinxin Dong
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062173
Abstract: A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient concentrations in cucumber plants intercropped with various amounts of green garlic. In addition, the soil nutrient contents were studied over two consecutive growing seasons. The results revealed that the accumulation of biomass and the nutritional elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in cucumber plants were significantly increased for intercropping treatments during the two growing seasons compared to monoculture. Conversely, magnesium (Mg) concentrations were decreased in the cucumber plants. Shoot iron (Fe) concentrations decreased whereas root Fe concentrations increased in the intercropping system. Shoot and root zinc (Zn) concentrations decreased during the fall of 2011 but increased during the spring of 2012. Soil organic matter and available N, P and K were significantly increased as the proportion of intercropped green garlic increasing. Medium levels of intercropping green garlic improved cucumber nutrient concentrations the most. The regression analysis showed that the concentrations of most elements were significantly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs, especially the microelements in the spring 2011. The available soil N and organic matter were linearly related to the amounts of garlic bulbs. The results indicate that the nutritional status of the soil and plants of continuously cropped cucumber could be improved by intercropping with green garlic.
Effect of cowpea intercropping on weed control and corn yieid
Silva, P.S.L.;Oliveira, O.F.;Silva, P.I.B.;Silva, K.M.B.;Braga, J.D.;
Planta Daninha , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582009000300009
Abstract: herbicides have simplified weed control, but the use of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes and has become an environmental contamination factor. herbicide use reduction is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several alternatives being investigated, including intercropping. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cowpea and corn cultivar intercropping on weed control and corn green-ear (immature ears with 80% humidity grains) and grain yield. a completely randomized block design with split-plots and four replications was used. ag 1051, ag 2060 and pl 6880 corn cultivars (assigned to plots) were submitted to the four treatments: no weeding, two hoe-weeding (22 and 41 days after planting), and intercropping with cowpea (br 14 and ipa 206 cultivars, with indeterminate growth). the cowpea was planted (with corn planting) between the corn rows, in pits 1.0 m apart, with two plants per pit. the corn cultivars did not differ from each other as to weed density (wd), fresh above-ground weed biomass (wb), green-ear yield and grain yields. higher wd and wb mean values were found in no weeding subplots; lower mean values in two hoe-weeding subplots; and intermediate mean values in intercropped subplots, indicating that cowpea plants had, to a certain extent, control over weeds. the no-weeded plots and the intercropped plots had lower green-ear and grain yields. although the cowpea cultivars had a certain control over weeds (mean reductions of 22.5 and 18.3%, in terms of green matter density and weight of the above-ground part of weeds, respectively), they also competed against the corn plants, leading to yield reduction (mean reductions of 17.0 and 32% in green ear and grain yield, respectively). the cowpea cultivars did not produce grain, certainly due to the strong competition exerted by the corn and weeds on cowpea plants.
Above and Below Ground Interactions in Monoculture and Intercropping of Onion and Lettuce in Greenhouse Conditions  [PDF]
Jessica L. de Haan, Liette Vasseur
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521347
Abstract: Intercropping has been seen as an advantageous strategy in sustainable agriculture. Plants however interact with one another both above and below ground with members of the same species (intraspecific) or members of a different species (interspecific) for nutrients, water and light. It is therefore essential to understand these interactions when intercropped. The objective was to examine the above and below ground interactions between onion and lettuce in monocrop and intercrop systems. We examined the various possible interactions (no competition, above ground, below ground, or full) using a full factorial randomized design under greenhouse conditions. Onion yield was highest in intraspecific above ground competition and lowest in below ground and full interspecific competition with lettuce. Dry weight of onions in above ground competition with lettuce was significantly greater than that of the control group. Fresh weight of lettuce leaves were highest in below ground and full interspecific competition treatments. The hectare model and yield results suggest that there is strong below ground competitive effect between onion and lettuce in intercrop. Asymetric interspecific facilitation was found: facilitation by onion led to increased lettuce yield but a negative effect of lettuce on onion yield was observed. Knowledge of competitive interactions between component crops can have several applications in sustainable agricultural as it helps to match the most efficient species under specific conditions.
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