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Female Sexual Function of Overweight Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Meireluci Costa Ribeiro, Mary Uchiyama Nakamura, Maria Regina Torloni, Marco de Tubino Scanavino, Flávia Burin Scomparini, Rosiane Mattar
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095094
Abstract: Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing worldwide and may compromise female sexual function. We hypothesize that among GDM patients in the third trimester of pregnancy, those with excess body fat would have worse female sexual function scores than normal weight women. Our aim was to assess the sexual function of overweight compared to normal weight women with GDM. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 143 Brazilian women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy: 76 were overweight (pre-pregnancy body mass index-BMI≥25.0 Kg/m2) and 67 were normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2). Participants were recruited from March 2010 to April 2013 at the antenatal clinic of a single public tertiary teaching institution. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to assess sexual function. Overall, 51.7% of the 143 participants were at risk for sexual dysfunction symptoms (FSFI scores ≤26); this rate was significantly higher among overweight compared to normal weight women (60.5% versus 41.8%, p = 0.038). Mean total FSFI scores were significantly lower in overweight compared to normal weight women (21.7±9.2 versus 24.9±8.0, p = 0.029). Compared to normal weight women, overweight participants had lower mean scores in desire (3.4±1.2 versus 4.0±1.4, p = 0.007) and lubrication (3.8±2.0 versus 4.5±1.6, p = 0.023). According to these results, overweight women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy have lower female sexual function scores than normal weight women with the same disorder.
Sexual desire changes during menstrual cycle and relationship with premenstrual syndrome
Kiani Asiabar A.,Heidari M,Mohammady Tabar SH.,Faghihzadeh S.
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Sexual function in women may be affected by their menstrual cycle. Lack of sexual drive is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity. This study aims at determining the changes in sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and those associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and evaluates sexual desire during the menstrual cycle and the associated changes with PMS. Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study includes 150 women employed in factories in Tehran. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires and journals of premenstrual experiences.Results: Analysis of the data showed that the mean age of the subjects was 31 years )standard deviation = 8.46(. The most frequent decrease in sexual desire was during the week prior to the start of menstrual bleeding (27.3%) and the least frequent was from the end of bleeding to one week before the next period of menstrual bleeding (5.3%). In 24.7% of the cases, an increase in sexual desire occurred during the middle of the menstrual cycle and 27.3% during the course of menstrual bleeding. Moreover, 10.7% of the subjects had an increase in sexual desire during the week before bleeding. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and PMS (p<0.001). In addition, a positive correlation was found between changes in sexual desire and breast tenderness, joint and muscle pain. Conclusions: The sexual desire of women, with or without PMS, changes during the menstrual cycle. The greatest decrease in sexual desire occurs during the first week before menstrual bleeding in women with PMS. Such information can greatly help toward understanding and treatment in sexual therapy for couples.
Body mass index, sexual behaviour, and sexually transmitted infections : an analysis using the NHANES 1999–2000 data
Nico JD Nagelkerke, Roos MD Bernsen, Sema K Sgaier, Prabhat Jha
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-199
Abstract: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) files of 1999–2000 were used. Linear regression was used to relate the reported number of sex partners in the last year and lifetime to Body Mass Index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to relate Herpes Simplex Virus type II (HSV-2) antibodies to BMI and other variables.Data on 979 men and 1250 women were available for analysis. Obese (mean number of partners for men:1.12, women: 0.93) and overweight (mean for men: 1.38, women: 1.03) individuals reported fewer partners than individuals of normal BMI (mean for men:2.00, women: 1.15) in the last year (p < .0.01 & p < 0.05 for men, p < 0.05 & n.s. for women). The same relationship held for lifetime partners in men (mean 11.94, 18.80, and 22.08 for obese, overweight and normal BMI respectively (p < 0.05 & n.s. for obese and overweight vs normal respectively), but not in women (mean 7.96, 4.77, and 5.24 respectively). HSV-2 antibodies were significantly correlated with the number of lifetime partners in both men and women, with the odds of being HSV-2 positive increasing by 0.6% (p < 0.01) and 2.7% (p < 0.01) for men and women respectively. HSV-2 antibodies increased with age, even after adjustment for lifetime partners (p < 0.01). Being obese (HSV-2 prevalence 15.9 and 34.9% for men and women respectively) or overweight (HSV-2 prevalence 16.7 and 29.3 for men and women respectively) was not associated with HSV-2 antibodies (HSV-2 prevalence for normal BMI: 15.6 and 23.2% respectively), independent of whether the association was adjusted for life time sexual partners or not. There was evidence of substantial misreporting of sexual behaviour.Obese and overweight individuals, especially men, self report fewer sex partners than individuals of normal weight, but surprisingly this is not reflected in their risk of HSV-2 infection. HSV-2 antibodies provide information not contained in self-reported number of partners and may better estimate sexual risk than self-r
Comparison of the Stress, Sexual Disfunction, and Mental Happiness Coping Strategies in Two Groups of Normal Married Women and Women with Marital Conflicts  [PDF]
Zahra Zanbagh, Zahra Chabokinezhad
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.92020
Abstract: In the era that rapid and unpredictable changes have happened in human life, the family is still one of the sources that have a prominent role in protecting people, their social and emotional support, but data from past decades indicate an increase in divorce rates both in the world and in Iran. The present research aimed to compare coping strategies with stress, sexual disfunction, mental happiness in two groups of normal married women and women with marital conflicts. The research employed a causal-comparative method. The statistical population included all normal married women and women with marital conflicts who referred to counseling centers in Yazd city in 2016-2017. To this end, 150 women (75 normal married women and 75 women with marital conflicts) were selected using available sampling method. They completed the Lazarus and Fulkman (1985), Female Sexual Function Index (ROS) (2000), Panas Mental Happiness (1988) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Independent T-test in SPSS software. The findings showed that there is a difference between strategies for coping with stress, sexual disfunction, and mental happiness in both married women and women with marital conflicts.
Female social and sexual interest across the menstrual cycle: the roles of pain, sleep and hormones
Chrisalbeth J Guillermo, Heidi A Manlove, Peter B Gray, David T Zava, Chandler R Marrs
BMC Women's Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-19
Abstract: Salivary hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate-DHEAS, progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, estradiol and estriol) and socio-sexual variables were measured in 20 women taking oral contraceptives (OC group) and 20 not using OCs (control group). Outcome measures were adapted from questionnaires of menstrual cycle-related symptoms, physical activity, and interpersonal relations. Testing occurred during menstruation (T1), mid-cycle (T2), and during the luteal phase (T3). Changes in behavior were assessed across time points and between groups. Additionally, correlations between hormones and socio-behavioral characteristics were determined.Physical discomfort and sleep disturbances peaked at T1 for both groups. Exercise levels and overall socio-sexual interest did not change across the menstrual cycle for both groups combined. However, slight mid-cycle increases in general and physical attraction were noted among the control group, whereas the OC group experienced significantly greater socio-sexual interest across all phases compared to the control group. Associations with hormones differed by group and cycle phase. The estrogens were correlated with socio-sexual and physical variables at T1 and T3 in the control group; whereas progesterone, cortisol, and DHEAS were more closely associated with these variables in the OC group across test times. The direction of influence further varies by behavior, group, and time point. Among naturally cycling women, higher concentrations of estradiol and estriol are associated with lower attraction scores at T1 but higher scores at T3. Among OC users, DHEAS and progesterone exhibit opposing relationships with attraction scores at T1 and invert at T3.Data from this study show no change across the cycle in socio-sexual interest among healthy, reproductive age women but higher social and physical attraction among OC users. Furthermore, a broader range of hormones may be associated with attraction than previously thought. Such relationsh
Correlation between Body Mass Index and Sexual Dynamics
Cornelia Rada,Ileana Prejbeanu,Adriana Albu,Suzana Manolescu
International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health , 2011,
Abstract: Background: The limited number of studies on sexual quality of life in obesity suggests that this is an area in need of further study.Objectives: We intended to identify how the BMI (Body Mass Index) affects the subjects’ sexual dynamics. Methods: A questionnaire with items regarding the sexual life and BMI measurements was used in a sample of 1493 subjects, aged 18-90, randomly selected from urban Romanian areas. Results: The sample was characterized by average: weight of 72.11 kilograms, height of 1.71 m and a BMI of 24.30. The incidence of cases diagnosed with arterial hypertension is higher in overweight (51.3%) or obese (19.7%) subjects (p<0.001). In the overweight category the men’s proportion was twice higher (p<0.001). As the age increased the proportion of the overweight persons increased (p<0.001). In the entire sample the weekly sexual contacts prevailed (49.1%), most of the subjects reported an average duration of sexual contacts in the last year (without prelude and postlude) of 5-15 minutes (39.1%). The latent class analysis indicated that sexual life quality decrease with age and BMI. The univariate binary logistical regression showed a fragile association between high BMI values and sexual insatisfaction. With no doubt the most influencing variable over BMI and sexual satisfaction is the age, followed by marital status. Although the BMI increases by age yet at adult age (40-50 years) the overweightness and obesity are less frequent to the persons who do not share the household environment. Conclusion: For the obese people the benefits of weight loss to improve sexual life may be a way to motivate them to start and continue a special nutritional and physical activity program.
Determination of the Stages of the Sexual Cycle of the Bitch by Direct Examination
Ibrahim Aydin,Emrah Sur,Tugba Ozaydin,Dursun Ali Dinc
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1962.1967
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the stages of the sexual cycle of the bitch by direct examination and also to assess the reliability of this new technique by comparing it with the classical staining techniques used in bitches. Forty mixed-breed bitches, of different ages and sexually mature were used in this study. A total of 120 vaginal smear samples were collected using a cotton swab, three from each bitch. The collected samples were air dried and coded. One of the prepared samples from each bitch was stained with May-Grunwald Giemsa and the second sample was stained with Papanicolaou. The third sample was left unstained for direct examination. The stages of the sexual cycle were determined using all of the samples. The researcher who evaluated the samples did not have information about the coding system. The evaluation was made blindly and the results were compared after determination of the stages of the sexual cycle from all of the samples. The sexual cycle stages determined with the May-Grunwald Giemsa and Papanicolaou techniques were completely consistent with each other. However, when the direct examination technique was compared with the classical staining techniques, there was a significant difference in the proestrus, diestrus and anestrus stages of the cycle (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the estrus stage of the cycle. In conclusion, it was found that when determining the stages of the sexual cycle of the bitch by vaginal cytology, the direct examination technique was reliable only in detecting the estrus stage of the cycle.
Women''''s Perceptions of Men''''s Sexual Coerciveness Change Across the Menstrual Cycle

Christine E Garver-Apgar,Steven W Gangestad,Jeffry A Simpson,
,E. ,Garver-Apgar,Steven ,W. ,Gangestad,Jeffry ,A. ,Simpson

心理学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Ancestral women would have suffered higher costs ifthey were raped or sexually coerced during the fertile phase of their reproductive cycle. Accordingly, selection pressures should have made women more sensitive to cues of male sexual coerciveness near ovulation. Normally ovulating women watched videotaped interviews of men trying to attract another woman and then rated each man's probable sexual coerciveness. Women nearing ovulation rated men as more coercive relative to women in the non-fertile phase. Moreover, fertile women's judgments of men's coerciveness were better predicted by an aggregate of women's responses than were judgments of non-fertile women, suggesting that women are more attuned to salient cues of potential coerciveness during the fertile phase of the cycle, and thus, may be less error-prone. Because these findings are unlikely to be explained by general-purpose learning mechanisms, they suggest that women may possess specially designed perceptual counter-strategies that guard against male sexual coercion.
LH Dynamics in Overweight Girls with Premature Adrenarche and Slowly Progressive Sexual Precocity
Brian Bordini, Elizabeth Littlejohn, Robert L Rosenfield
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/724696
Abstract: We have characterized a variant group of sexually precocious girls who presented diagnostic challenges that provided an opportunity to test hypotheses about pubertal pathophysiology. They met current criteria for sexual precocity, with breast and pubic hair development before 8 years of age [1–3]. However, they differed from girls with typical central precocious puberty (also termed complete, true, or gonadotropin-dependent premature puberty) because they had slowly progressive precocious breast development [4–6], were overweight, and had premature adrenarche (SPPOPA). Their early morning LH serum levels were also persistently prepubertal during the initial observation period. About one-third of girls with central precocity are overweight [7], about half have premature adrenarche (PA) [6], although it causes pseudoprecocity independently of true puberty [8], and only about 10% have early morning LH levels in the prepubertal range [9]. Thus, our SPPOPA group presented an uncommon, but not rare, combination of findings.Their peripubertal adiposity and hyperandrogenism suggested that they were at risk of developing polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hyperandrogenic anovulation disorder that is often accompanied by obesity [10]. Obesity potentially predisposes to the development of PCOS by causing premenarcheal LH excess that is mediated by peripubertal hyperandrogenemia [11–13]. PA, a mild form of adrenal hyperandrogenism, potentially poses increased risk for the development of PCOS, particularly in obese and African-American or Hispanic girls [10, 14, 15].The diagnostic challenge was to determine whether SPPOPA girls had early activation of the neuroendocrine-gonadal axis that ordinary testing failed to capture, whether their thelarche was due to adiposity-related peripheral estrogen formation [16], or whether they simply had pseudothelarche due to adipomastia. If they had adipomastia or estrogen excess of peripheral origin, one would expect LH dynamics to be suppres
Genital Ways Changes During Sexual Cycle  [PDF]
M. Izabela,S. Angela,M. Pavel
Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty , 2006,
Abstract: The exact determination of sexual cycle stages has constituted a major concern for specialists, thesuccess of reproduction depending on it by establishing the optimal moment for insemination as well as inorder to achieve some biotechnical action such as heat synchronization and embryos transfer. The presentstudy goal is represented by the establishment of some assembly microscopically traits belonging to thefemale genital system during the different stages of the estrus.
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