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Development of a distress inventory for cancer: preliminary results.  [cached]
Thomas B,Mohan V,Thomas I,Pandey M
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: CONTEXT: Advances in cancer treatment have led to cure and prolongation of patients′ lives; however associated psychosocial problems, including distress, can detrimentally affect patients′ compliance with treatment and ultimately, their outcome. Symptom distress has been well addressed in many studies; however, psychological distress has only been quantified by using depression or anxiety scales/checklists or quality of life scales containing a distress sub scale/component or by the use of scales that are not psychological distress-specific. AIMS: The present study is an attempt to construct a psychological distress inventory for specific use with cancer patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The standardisation sample consisted of 63 randomly selected patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone/ were undergoing curative treatment at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Distress Inventory for Cancer contained 57 positively and negatively toned items. An item analysis was conducted, followed by a factor analysis, thereby identifying the domains influencing distress. RESULTS: The final questionnaire contained 26 items subdivided into four domains viz. the personal, spiritual, physical, and the family domains, with each domain providing a sub score. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach′s alpha) of the scale was found to be 0.85. CONCLUSIONS: These are the preliminary results of an ongoing study on global distress and tool development process. Reported here is the first step towards development of such tool.
The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults
Tara W Strine, Valerie J Edwards, Shanta R Dube, Morton Wagenfeld, Satvinder Dhingra, Angela Witt Prehn, Sandra Rasmussen, Lela McKnight-Eily, Janet B Croft
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-7-30
Abstract: Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used.Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant.These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.
Psychological Variables for Identifying Susceptibility to Mental Disorders in Medical  [cached]
Rosa Sender,Manel Salamero,Manuel Valdés
Medical Education Online , 2004,
Abstract: Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic) lives as more stressful.
CT scan screening is associated with increased distress among subjects of the APExS
Christophe Paris, Marion Maurel, Amandine Luc, Audrey Stoufflet, Jean-Claude Pairon, Marc Letourneux
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-647
Abstract: A HRCT-scan screening program for asbestos-related diseases was carried out in four regions of France. At baseline (T1), subjects filled in self-administered occupational questionnaires. In two of the regions, subjects also received a validated psychological scale, namely the psychological consequences questionnaire (PCQ). The physician was required to provide the subject with the results of the HRCT scan at a final visit. A second assessment of psychological consequences was performed 6 months after the HRCT-scan examination (T2). PCQ scores were compared quantitatively (t-test, general linear model) and qualitatively (chi2-test, logistic regression) to screening results. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, smoking, asbestos exposure and counseling.Among the 832 subjects included in this psychological impact study, HRCT-scan screening was associated with a significant increase of the psychological score 6 months after the examination relative to baseline values (8.31 to 10.08, p < 0.0001, t-test). This increase concerned patients with an abnormal HRCT-scan result, regardless of the abnormalities, but also patients with normal HRCT-scans after adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, asbestos exposure and counseling visit. The greatest increase was observed for pleural plaques (+3.60; 95%CI [+2.15;+5.06]), which are benign lesions. Detection of isolated pulmonary nodules was also associated with a less marked but nevertheless significant increase of distress (+1.88; 95%CI [+0.34;+3.42]). However, analyses based on logistic regressions only showed a close to significant increase of the proportion of subjects with abnormal PCQ scores at T2 for patients with asbestosis (OR = 1.92; 95%CI [0.97-3.81]) or with two or more diseases (OR = 2.04; 95%CI [0.95-4.37]).This study suggests that HRCT-scan screening may be associated with increased distress in asbestos-exposed subjects. If confirmed, these results may have consequences for HRCT-scan screening rec
Assessment of distress caused by psychopathology in children and adolescents
Ezpeleta,Lourdes; Reic,Wendy; Graner,Roser;
Escritos de Psicología (Internet) , 2009,
Abstract: the aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. the sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in barcelona ( spain) assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. a substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. it was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.
Assessment of Distress Associated to Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents  [PDF]
Lourdes Ezpeleta,Wendy Reich,Roser Granero
Escritos de Psicología , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain) assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.
Culture and psychological distress
Dressler, William W.;Balieiro, Mauro Campos;Santos, José Ernesto dos;
Paidéia (Ribeir?o Preto) , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-863X2002000100002
Abstract: examining the influence of cultural factors on psychological distress, relative to other (e.g. social and psychological) influences, has been difficult due to the incomplete development of a theory of culture that leads to the reliable and valid measurement of cultural factors in such a way that these can be incorporated into multivariate models. in this paper we present both such a theory and such a methodology, and apply it to the study of the community distribution of psychological distress in an urban area in brazil. in this theory and method, culture is conceptualized as consisting of shared cultural models that are imperfectly realized in mundane behaviors. the link of cultural model and individual behavior is referred to as "cultural consonance". here we show that cultural consonance in two different domains is associated with psychological stress, independently from covariates and possible confounding variables. implications of the results for future research are also discussed.
The association between overall health, psychological distress, and occupational heat stress among a large national cohort of 40,913 Thai workers  [cached]
Benjawan Tawatsupa,Lynette L-Y. Lim,Tord Kjellstrom,Sam-ang Seubsman
Global Health Action , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v3i0.5034
Abstract: Background: Occupational heat stress is a well-known problem, particularly in tropical countries, affecting workers, health and well-being. There are very few recent studies that have reported on the effect of heat stress on mental health, or overall health in workers, although socioeconomic development and rapid urbanization in tropical developing countries like Thailand create working conditions in which heat stress is likely. Objective: This study is aimed at identifying the relationship between self-reported heat stress and psychological distress, and overall health status in Thai workers. Results: 18% of our large national cohort (>40,000 subjects) often works under heat stress conditions and males are exposed to heat stress more often than females. Furthermore, working under heat stress conditions is associated with both worse overall health and psychological distress (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.49 to 1.84). Conclusions: This association between occupational heat stress and worse health needs more public health attention and further development on occupational health interventions as climate change increases Thailand's temperatures.
Family Background and Environment, Psychological Distress, and Juvenile Delinquency  [PDF]
Tony Cassidy
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29142
Abstract: The relationship between youth offending and family background is still unclear in the literature. This study explored the role of family factors and psychological distress in relation to delinquency and youth offending to try and explicate the relative importance of family structure, family relations, and psychological distress. The study used the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Delinquency Scale in a structured interview format to measure psychological distress, family structure and relations, and levels of youth offending, in 219 older children and adolescents aged between 12-17 years living in areas associated with high levels of youth offending in the UK. Analysis involved correlations, hierarchical multiple regression and analysis of variance. Family relations were the best predictors of delinquency and were also correlated with psychological distress. The relationship between delinquency and psychological distress indicated that participants with more psychological distress were less likely to be involved in criminal behaviour. The study supports the conclusion that youth offending and psychological distress are both influenced by a range of factors in the family, but may be unrelated to each other.
Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population
Willem van Rhenen, Frank JH van Dijk, Wilmar B Schaufeli, Roland WB Blonk
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-3-3
Abstract: Distress is measured using the Four Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), a 50-item self-report questionnaire, in a working population with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points, and a receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted.A distress cutoff point of ≥11 was defined. The choice was based on a challenging specificity and negative predictive value and indicates a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk for subsequent sick leave on psychological grounds. The defined distress cutoff point is appropriate for use in occupational health practice and in studies of distress in working populations.Distress is a heterogeneously defined and imprecise term that refers to unpleasant subjective stress responses [1]. Verhaak [2] estimated the prevalence in the general population in western communities as 15–25%. In a clinical population of cancer patients, Keller et al. [3] reported clinically relevant distress in about 25% of patients (across other studies this figure ranges from 5% to 50%). In the working population, Bültmann et al. [4] documented a prevalence of psychological distress as 21.8% for men and 25.9% for women Distress and stress-related disorders are widespread among working and non-working populations and are responsible for high costs in terms of human suffering, disability and economic losses.Despite the high prevalence and costly consequences, distress still goes unrecognized by health professionals. In clinical settings comparing the patient-reported distress to the doctor's rating, the vast majority of the cases go unrecognized [5]. Although figures for occupational health physicians are unknown, we assume that these will be similar to those in clinical settings.The underrating of distress is not surprising since in health care the focus is not on distress, but on depression and anxiety disorders and their consequences. Contrary to dist
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