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Family responsibility dynamics for young adults in transition to adult health care  [PDF]
Pat Rapley, Gwen Babel, Joey Kaye, Suzanne Brown
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.33021
Abstract:

Aim: To explore family responsibility dynamics, metabolic control, clinic attendance, and emergency admissions when young adults (YA) with type 1 diabetes transition to an adult hospital. Method: A longitudinal mixed method design with two study groups (parents, n = 28; YA intervention group, n = 23) and a YA comparison group (n = 20). Sample recruited from an outpatient diabetes centre. Demographic, clinic attendance, emergency admissions, biodata, and the Diabetes Family Responsibility Questionnaire (DFRQ) were completed on entry and sixmonths later as part of an 18-month trial of a diabetes transition coordinator (DTC). The selfreport DFRQ were analyzed using derived parent-child dyadic variables to explore differences at baseline and end of study using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The relationship between metabolic control and the DFRQ patterns was explored using Spearman’s rho. Results: On completion of the study, the change in HBA1Cfor both adolescent groups was not significant but was less than ideal for 25% of adolescents in the study. The YA intervention group had significantly fewer missed appointments between them compared to the comparison group. The DFRQ indicated that the derived parent-child dyadic variable of task-discordance increased during the study. Conclusion: The clinically relevant diabetes-task dissonance between parents and young adults offers a challenge and a diagnostic opportunity for diabetes educators.

Family social environment in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood
Christelle Roustit, Eric Campoy, Emilie Renahy, Gary King, Isabelle Parizot, Pierre Chauvin
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-949
Abstract: We analyzed data from the first wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures Survey (SIRS), a longitudinal health and socio-epidemiological survey of a random sample of 3000 households initiated in the Paris metropolitan area in 2005. Sample-weighted logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the quality of family social environment in childhood and self-rated health (overall health, physical health and psychological well-being) in young adults (n = 1006). We used structural equation model to explore the mediating role of the quality of family functioning in childhood in the association between family breakup in childhood and self-rated health in young adulthood.The multivariate results support an association between a negative family social environment in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood. The association found between parental separation or divorce in childhood and poor self-perceived health in adulthood was mediated by parent-child relationships and by having witnessed interparental violence during childhood.These results argue for interventions that enhance family cohesion, particularly after family disruptions during childhood, to promote health in young adulthood.Research studies using measures of social stratification based on the three core dimensions of socioeconomic status, namely, level of education, occupational status and income, social health inequalities are being increasingly explored through the life-course epidemiological approach [1-5]. Adverse life events or circumstances can constitute pathways between social conditions and disparities in health outcomes (pathway model) or lead to social inequalities in economic resources, which in turn, are associated with poor health outcomes (i.e., accumulation model) [6]. Research studies in this field are contributing to the health inequality debate, thus providing data for policy makers to allocate human resources to disadvantaged families w
Reproductive health of adolescents and young adults  [cached]
Ahmet Re?it Ersay,Gülbu Tortumluo?lu
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In Turkey, one out of five person belonging to 10-24 age group, is at risk concerning reproductive health. Topics related to the reproductive health, are neither discussed within the family or society, nor within the educational system. Adolescents, who have to experience sexual intercourse with insufficient and incorrect knowledge, have to face with sexually transmitted diseases (STD), teenage pregnancy, abortion and other problems as a consequence of this experience. Research on this area has showed that both adolescents and young adults, especially health personnel, requested training on reproductive health. In terms of planning health services effectively, these topics should be evaluated carefully in Turkey. In this research, reproductive health regarding adolescents and young adults is examined under the four headings of sexual experience, STD, use of protection and productivity. As a result, depending on all the cultural restrictions and health service limitations, it is observed that adolescents and young adults experience sexual relationship with an inadequate knowledge and consequently, they have to face with problems. Within this context, it is suggested to expand the reproductive health educational programmes involving family, school and society within long term.
What prompts young adults in Ireland to attend health services for STI testing?
Myles Balfe, Ruairi Brugha
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-311
Abstract: Semi-structured interviews with 30 adults (21 women, 9 men). Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP) practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services for men who have sex with men (MSM). Interview questions examined why respondents decided to go for STI testing, whether they acted upon this desire immediately or decided to wait, and what they felt were important barriers/enablers to their health-seeking attempts. Interviews were thematically analyzed using standard qualitative techniques.Respondents sought STI testing for one of four reasons: they had reached a transitional moment in their lives (they were either about to stop using condoms with their sexual partner or were emerging from a period of their lives where they had a series of risky sexual relationships); they had had unprotected sex with a casual partner; they had symptoms of infection; and/or they were required to do so by their employer. Catalytic factors included media and government health promotion campaigns and knowing someone with an STI. However, many respondents delayed seeking testing. Reasons included respondents' concerns about stigma and that they would be judged by healthcare professionals, and feelings of invulnerability. Importantly, several respondents who waited up to four weeks to make an appointment after their initial decision to seek STI testing did not view this as delay.Sexual health promotion campaigns for young people should address the reasons why they delay testing, specifically through measures to avoid stigma (supply-side) and reassure young adults (demand-side). Strategies to increase testing-uptake should focus on these four key opportunities – young adults leaving relationships, those entering relationships where condoms will not be used, those who have had unprotected sex and those with STI-related symptoms.Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are increasingly important public health issues in
Immigration, Transition into Adult Life and Social Adversity in Relation to Psychological Distress and Suicide Attempts among Young Adults  [PDF]
Kyriaki Kosidou, Clara Hellner-Gumpert, Peeter Fredlund, Christina Dalman, Johan Hallqvist, G?ran Isacsson, Cecilia Magnusson
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046284
Abstract: Background The increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people is a major concern in many Western countries. The causal mechanisms underlying these trends are not well established, but factors influenced by current societal changes ought to be implicated. Such factors include immigration and social adversity as well as the timing of taking on adult social roles (e.g. gainful employment, parenthood and own housing tenure). We therefore examined relationships between these factors and the risks of psychological distress as well as suicide attempts in young adults, with a focus on gender differences. Methods We conducted a population-based study including 10,081 individuals aged 18–29, recruited in 2002 and 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden. Data were collected by record linkage and questionnaires. Results Non-European immigrants had an increased risk of distress, and female non-European immigrants had a markedly higher risk of suicide attempts. Both early parenthood (≤24 years) and not being a parent, being a student and the lack of own housing tenure were associated with distress, but only in women. In both sexes, financial strain was associated with the increased risk of distress and suicide attempts, while unemployment was only associated with distress. Conclusions Immigration from outside Europe and social adversity are associated with mental health problems in young adults, especially females. Postponed transition into adulthood is associated with poor mental health in young women. These factors are influenced by current societal changes, and may have contributed to the increasing incidence of mental health problems among young people in Western countries.
Assessment of marital and family expectations of a group of urban single young adults  [cached]
Henry J,Parthasarathy R
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: The lack of baseline understanding of what young adults′ needs and expectations are from marital and family life is the context in which this study has evolved. The author believes that the findings from this study could fee into the contents of a more relevant and useful Family Life Education program for young adults in urban India. Aims: To explore and analyze the needs and expectations of single young adults with respect to marital and family life. Materials and Methods: A college in Bangalore with students from graduate and post-graduate courses in the age group of 18 to 25 years. A semi-structure interview schedule prepared by the author was administered on 100 students. Qualitative and Quantitative. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that a large number of the participants had very specific emotional, cognitive and physiological expectations from marital and family life. They also expressed an active need for education on mate selection, sexuality, parenting, interpersonal relationships, intimacy, conflict resolution, among other areas of need. The findings from this study would find great relevance in the preparation of a relevant and practical Family Life Education program for single young adults which in turn would be useful in colleges, workplaces, family counseling centers or any platform where single young adults wish to access such family base services.
Physical activity correlates in young women with depressive symptoms: a qualitative study
Denise Azar, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon, Verity J Cleland
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-3
Abstract: A sample of 40 young women (aged 18-30 years), 20 with depressive symptoms (assessed using the CES-D 10) and 20 without depressive symptoms participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A social-ecological framework was used, focusing on the individual, social and physical environmental influences on physical activity. Thematic analyses were performed on transcribed interview data.The results indicated several key themes that were unique to women with depressive symptoms. These women more often described negative physical activity experiences during their youth, more barriers to physical activity, participating in more spontaneous than planned activity, lower self-efficacy for physical activity and being influenced by their friends' and family's inactivity.Interventions designed to promote physical activity in this important target group should consider strategies to reduce/overcome early life negative experiences, engage support from family and friends and plan for activity in advance.Globally, depression is the fourth leading cause of disease burden [1]. In 2003, depression and anxiety disorders were ranked the second leading cause of burden of disease and injury in Australia [2]. Young adults are a population group at high risk of experiencing depression [3,4] and are also a group at increased risk of declining physical activity levels [5-7]. Although young adults are generally more active than mid-aged and older-adults, evidence suggests that the steepest decline in physical activity occurs during late adolescence and young adulthood [8], particularly amongst women. Furthermore, women in young adulthood participate in lower levels of physical activity than men [9,10]. In addition to its benefits to physical health, many studies indicate that participating in physical activity can also have positive effects on psychological health, such as reducing risk or symptoms of depression [11,12]. A recent review [13] found that physical activity reduces depressiv
The Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Coping Styles: A Study on Young Adults  [PDF]
Pragati Gupta, Nikita De, Subhalina Hati, Chayanika Saikia, Rita Karmakar
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.1012109
Abstract: The concept of psychological capital can be defined as an individual’s positive psychological resource, which consists of four components which are self-efficacy/confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience. Positive Psychological Capital (PsyCap) is a recently developed higher order construct applied in the context of organizations, which has been hypothesized to aid employees cope with stress effectively in workplace increasing their psychological and physical well-being. Coping strategies refer to the specific efforts, both behavioural and psychological, that people employ to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events by using rational, detached, emotional and avoidance coping. This study aims to explore the nature of Positive Psychological Capital (PsyCap) and Coping styles among male and female young adults and the relationship between PsyCap and Coping styles. Data were collected by using Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) & Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ), administered on 100 participants aged between 18 - 25 years, from different colleges of Kolkata, using stratified simple random sampling method. Results indicated the following: 1) Hope and Resilience are significantly higher among female young adults than their male counterparts. 2) Detached and Avoidance coping style are significantly higher among male young adults & emotional coping style is significantly higher among female young adults. 3) Positive correlations exist between all the dimensions of PsyCap and functional coping style and negative relationship exists between dimensions of PsyCap and dysfunctional coping style. The study implies the effective use of PsyCap to promote positive outcomes, fostering development in young adult population.
Pessimism, Reflective Planning, Self-Handicapping, Health Behaviors and Depressed Mood in Taiwanese Young Adults  [PDF]
Wan-Lan Chen, Ke-Ni Kao
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.913158
Abstract: Extensive research supports that pessimism leads to negative effects on health and emotions. However, there is also evidence indicating that some forms of pessimism may be adaptive for adjustment. The present study investigates the effects of pessimistic trait, reflective planning and self-handicapping on individuals’ health behavior and depressive mood. The samples comprised 322 Taiwanese young adults. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that pessimists adopting reflective planning as coping were more likely to engage in health-promoting behaviors and report lower depressed mood. In contrast, pessimists adopting self-handicapping as coping were tended to engage in fewer health behaviors and report higher depressed mood. These data are interpreted as evidence that pessimism has the potential for leading to use either reflective planning or self-handicapping as coping strategies, and that the two strategies are related to different behavioral and psychological consequences. Richer understanding of the interactive effects of pessimism and coping strategies on health-related outcomes requires more objective measurement and longitudinal research design.
Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group
S. H. Hosseini, M.D.,? H. Khani, M.D,A.R. Khalilian, Ph.D,K. Vahidshahi, M.D.
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM), a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8%) were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01), education level (P<0.0001), school performance (P<0.0001). TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03), PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001), and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05). We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001), interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.003), anxiety (P<0.05) and psychoticism (P<0.03) in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric consultation.
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