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Molecular Detection of Biofilm-Producing Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from National Orthopaedic Hospital Dala, Kano State, Nigeria  [PDF]
U. Abdulrahim, M. Kachallah, M. Rabiu, N. A. Usman, G. O. Adeshina, B. O. Olayinka
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2019.93012
Abstract: This study evaluated biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility in 36 clinical S. aureus isolates recovered from orthopaedic patients and detected the presence of intercellular adhesion and adhesin genes. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from nasal swab, wound and urine specimens collected from orthopaedic patients in National Orthopaedic Hospital Dala, Kano over a period of three months. The isolates were identified using rapid identification kit for Staphylococcus species. The antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was determined using modified disc diffusion method. Phenotypically, the biofilm formation was assessed using the Congo red agar method and microtitre plate assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to detect biofilm-associated genes and characterize the isolates. The isolation rate of S. aureus from the samples (n = 134) was 26.8%, mainly from nasal swab (36%) and wound swab (36%). A total of 19 (52.7%) of the isolates showed positive for slime production. Majority of the isolates 29/36 (81.6%) were biofilm positive with only 2 (5.5%) and 5 (13.8%) as strong biofilm-formers and moderate biofilm-formers respectively. Molecular evaluation of the biofilm-associated genes in 12 S. aureus isolates revealed the prevalence of bbp genes (25%), clfA genes (16.6%) and the icaA (8.3%). None of the isolates harboured the fnbA and cna genes. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the antibiotic resistance pattern between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. aureus isolates. This result revealed that phenotypically most of the S. aureus isolates were biofilm formers but few of them chromosomally harbour the biofilm-associated genes.
Incidence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ungogo, Nassarawa, Dala and Fagge local government areas of Kano State, Nigeria
AA Umar, SE Bassey
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This study was carried out between October, 2005 and August, 2006 to determine the occurrence and distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis in Dala, Fagge, Nassarawa and Ungoggo Local Government Areas of Kano State. A total of 280 stool samples from primary schools pupils in the area were examined for the presence of S. stercoralis using direct smear technique. 104 (37.14%) stool samples were found positive. Pupil ages 11 – 13 years had the highest infection 44 (42.30%). Male pupils were more infected 76(73.07%) and Nassarawa Local Government Area had the highest rate of infection 30 (42.85%). 560 S. stercoralis were isolated from the soil of the study area. The soil analysis showed that most of the parasites 174 (31.07% were also found at Nassarawa Local Government Area. Chi – square method was used in analyzing the data obtained. This study stands as a point for further research on S. stercoralis in the study area. Adequate financial provision for the support of fundamental and applied research programme into this topic is strongly recommended.
Spatiotemporal Pattern of Crime Using Geographic Information System (GIS) Approach in Dala L.G.A of Kano State, Nigeria  [PDF]
M. Ahmed
American Journal of Engineering Research , 2013,
Abstract: This study explores the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial database of crime characteristics which helps in the determination of hotspots in Dala LGA of Kano State and also it identifies the challenges facing police departments that seek to implement computerized crime mapping systems. Different data sources were used, data from the Nigerian Police Force ( Dala and Jakara Division) of 2008 – 2010. For this study, the crime was divided into four categories: offence against person, offence against property, offence against authority and offence against local act. The spatiotemporal distributions of the crimes from the three years were analyzed. ArcGIS version 9.3 was used for the analysis and results reveal that crime rate is higher outside the city wall while the rate increased from time to time especially in the year 2010. There are more hotspots outside the city wall. It also shows that crime doesn’t occur closer to police stations, but seldom occur around outpost police stations. The buffer zones of 2Kms were used and it analyzed that places like kurna, Gobirawa and YanMata are in need of Police Stations.
Profile of congenital transverse deficiencies among cases of congenital orthopaedic anomalies.  [cached]
Jain S,Lakhtakia PK
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery , 2002,
Abstract: The authors showed the data of congenital amputation in 36 cases among the physically handicapped individuals (who attended a district level hospital for the purpose of obtaining a handicap certificate) during the period from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2000. Out of 3550 individuals, we found 612 with congenital orthopaedic anomalies, which accounted for 17.2%. Of these 612 individuals, we noted 36 cases with congenital amputation (amputation through digits and toes were not included). Both unilateral and bilateral congenital amputations were much more common in the upper extremity as compared to lower extremity. Not a single case of simultaneous upper and lower extremity involvement was seen. The most common transverse deficiency in the upper limb was through the forearm, and in the lower limb it was through the foot. Congenital amputation was common in males with a gender ratio of 3.5:1. Left limb involvement was twice as much as right limb involvement, and it was common in both sexes. Bilateral limb involvement was seen only in males.
Profile and outcome of non-traumatic paraplegia in Kano, northwestern Nigeria
LF Owolabi, A Ibrahim, AA Samaila
Annals of African Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Aim: This study was aimed to identify the clinical and radiological profile of non-traumatic paraplegia and the various etiologies associated with the condition. Materials and Methods: A review of the clinical and radiological presentations of adult patients presenting with non-traumatic paraplegia managed at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) and Murtala Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, from June 2006 to November 2009 was carried out. Patients underwent a detailed clinical evaluation followed by laboratory investigation and neuroimaging studies and were followed up for 9 months to asses outcome and complications. Results: 98 patients with non-traumatic paraplegia consisting of 71 males and 27 females (M:F: 5:2) were seen. The age range of the patients was between 16 and 76 years, with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 15.3) years; 54 (55%) of the patients presented after 2 months of the onset of paraplegia. The commonest symptoms were weakness of the lower limbs (100%), loss of sensation (55%), sphincteric disturbance (50%) radicular pain and paresthesia (38.4%), back pain (21.4%) and erectile dysfunction (40%). All the patients had X-ray of the spine; 26.3% had Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) spine. The commonest etiological factors were tuberculosis (TB) (44.4%), transverse myelitis (13.1%), Guillain-Barre syndrome (9.1%), metastatic spinal disease (4%), and HIV myelopathy (4%). However, the cause could not be identified in 14 (14%) of the patients. The commonest site of affectation in those with TB spine was lower thoracic (53.8%) and upper lumbar (23.1%) vertebrae. Conclusion: Clinical profile of non-traumatic paraplegia in Kano, northwestern Nigeria, is similar to that reported elsewhere in Africa, with spinal tuberculosis and transverse myelitis accounting for over half the cases. DOI: 10.4103/1596-3519.82062
Profile and outcome of non-traumatic paraplegia in Kano, northwestern Nigeria  [cached]
Owolabi L,Ibrahim A,Samaila A
Annals of African Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Aim: This study was aimed to identify the clinical and radiological profile of non-traumatic paraplegia and the various etiologies associated with the condition. Materials and Methods: A review of the clinical and radiological presentations of adult patients presenting with non-traumatic paraplegia managed at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) and Murtala Specialist Hospital (MMSH), Kano, from June 2006 to November 2009 was carried out. Patients underwent a detailed clinical evaluation followed by laboratory investigation and neuroimaging studies and were followed up for 9 months to asses outcome and complications. Results: 98 patients with non-traumatic paraplegia consisting of 71 males and 27 females (M:F: 5:2) were seen. The age range of the patients was between 16 and 76 years, with a mean age of 40 years (SD = 15.3) years; 54 (55%) of the patients presented after 2 months of the onset of paraplegia. The commonest symptoms were weakness of the lower limbs (100%), loss of sensation (55%), sphincteric disturbance (50%) radicular pain and paresthesia (38.4%), back pain (21.4%) and erectile dysfunction (40%). All the patients had X-ray of the spine; 26.3% had Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) spine. The commonest etiological factors were tuberculosis (TB) (44.4%), transverse myelitis (13.1%), Guillain-Barre syndrome (9.1%), metastatic spinal disease (4%), and HIV myelopathy (4%). However, the cause could not be identified in 14 (14%) of the patients. The commonest site of affectation in those with TB spine was lower thoracic (53.8%) and upper lumbar (23.1%) vertebrae. Conclusion: Clinical profile of non-traumatic paraplegia in Kano, northwestern Nigeria, is similar to that reported elsewhere in Africa, with spinal tuberculosis and transverse myelitis accounting for over half the cases.
Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected Neonatal Septicaemia at a Teaching Hospital in Kano, Northwestern, Nigeria
EOK Nwankwo, AU Shehu, ZL Farouk
Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of suspected septicaemia in neonates in this locality. Five hundred and forty seven consecutive blood samples from neonates admitted in the special baby care unit (SCBU), Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano between January 2007 and December 2008 were cultured aerobically and anaerobically in the Microbiology Department, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital by standard bacteriological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was done by disc diffusion methods. One hundred and fifty two (27.8%) positive blood cultures were obtained from the present study. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (25.0%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.1%) and Escherichia coli (15.0%). Gentamicin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone and amoxycillin/clavulanate showed higher percentage antibiotic sensitivity pattern while chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole and ampicillin showed very low percentage antibiotic sensitivity pattern against the various bacterial isolates. The present study showed that Staphylococcus aureus is the leading isolate in neonatal septicaemia in Kano. Gentamicin and Ceftriaxone are recommended as first line drugs in the management of neonatal septicaemia in our locality.
INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND HEAVY METALS PROFILE OF CHALLAWA RIVER IN KANO, NIGERIA  [PDF]
S. DAN’AZUMI,M.H. BICHI
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2010,
Abstract: The study analyzed the effect of heavy metals discharge, from industrial effluents, on River Challawa in Kano, Nigeria. The Challawa River is used for many purposes including irrigation, fishing and water supply. Sampling was conducted during wet (September) and dry (May) season. Wastewater samples at the point of discharge into the river were collected and analyzed. The mean level of Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn discharged into the river, during dry season, were 2.297, 1.290, 1.051, 2.986, 9.408 and 2.054 mg L-1 respectively. Similarly, the mean discharge of these metals, during wet season, was 1.634, 0.727, 1.252, 22.230, 8.911, and 2.013mg L-1 respectively. The discharge Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn into the river, for both seasons, has exceeded the maximum permissible limit given by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency of Nigeria (FEPA) and WHO. The Challawa River is also sampled at points along its length and the presence of some of these pollutants was evident at the various points. Level of Cr, Pb, Mn and Fe in the river, for both seasons, were found to be higher than the maximum limits given by FEPA and WHO, and this calls for a caution. The need to bring to an end the indiscriminate discharge of untreated effluent into the river through the enforcement of FEPA guidelines is also highlighted.
The Bacteriological Profile of Surgical Site Infections in Orthopaedic Implant Surgeries in South-East Nigeria  [PDF]
Kelechukwu A. Okoro, Osita Ede, Emmanuel C. Iyidobi, Ugochukwu U. Enweani, Cajetan U. Nwadinigwe, Gabriel O. Eyichukwu, Udo E. Anyaehie, Francis N. Ahaotu, Richard C. Ezeh
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.79003
Abstract: Background: Knowledge of the common bacteria that cause surgical site infection (SSI) and their antibiotic sensitivity is mandatory if treatment of surgical infection is to be successful. The threat of the emergence of resistant strains of bacteria is ever-present. Hence, a sensitivity directed therapy is paramount for the successful eradication of organisms with minimal risk of development of antibiotic resistance. Aim: The aim is to identify the common bacteria that cause SSI in orthopaedic implant surgeries in our hospital. Method: This is a prospective longitudinal study that includes all orthopaedic surgeries involving the use of implants within one year. Patients that had major orthopaedic surgeries involving implant were followed up and their wounds inspected for signs of SSI on postoperative days 3, 7, 14, 42 and 90. Wound swab was taken for microscopy, culture and sensitivity analysis from those who had wound infection, based on the CDC guidelines. Results: One-hundred and sixteen patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. There were 62 males and 54 females. The mean age of the participant was 39.62 years (SD = 15.02 years). Fracture fixation with plates and screws was the most common implant surgery done. The incidence of SSI was 2.6%, and Escherichia coli was the most common isolated pathogen. All the SSIs were superficial incisional type, and the infection was monomicrobial in 67% of cases and polymicrobial in 33%. All of the isolated pathogens were sensitive to Imipenem and Gentamycin. Conclusion: Superficial incisional SSI is the most common type of SSI in this study. Escherichia coli is the most frequent pathogen in SSI affecting implant surgeries in our hospital. Gentamycin and Imipenem should be used for the prophylaxis of SSI in our environment.
Replantation of ring avulsion amputations
Sabapathy R,Venkatramani H,Bharathi R,Sebastin S
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2003,
Abstract: Replantation of ring avulsion injuries is a challenge because of the long segment damage to the vessels and intrinsic damage caused to soft tissues at the proximal edge of the amputation. Eight patients with total ring avulsion amputations underwent microsurgical replantation in the period 1994 to 2002. Arterial repair was done by direct vessel suture in three patients, interposition vein grafts in two and cross anastomosis of the digital arteries in three patients. Venous anastomosis was carried out by mobilization and direct suture in seven patients and vessel transfer from the adjacent finger in one patient. Seven of the eight replantations were successful, while one patient had a partial failure. At a minimum follow-up of one year, these patients showed good functional and cosmetic recovery. All successful patients were happy with the outcome and none have requested for amputation, even those whose results were not functionally adequate. However, in addition to technical factors, it is important to evaluate the patient's motivation to undergo not only the long surgery, but also multiple secondary procedures and regular supervised physiotherapy. We also describe a simple method which prevents the soft tissues inside the degloved digit from becoming wrapped around the K wire during bony fixation, thus making one step of this technically challenging procedure a little easier.
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