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Sweet Success, Bitter Defeat: A Taste Phenotype Predicts Social Status in Selectively Bred Rats  [PDF]
John M. Eaton, Nancy K. Dess, Clinton D. Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046606
Abstract: For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an “early surge” on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health.
Expression Profiles of Mitochondrial Genes in the Frontal Cortex and the Caudate Nucleus of Developing Humans and Mice Selectively Bred for High and Low Fear  [PDF]
Kwang H. Choi, Thien Le, Jennifer McGuire, Jennifer Coyner, Brandon W. Higgs, Suad Diglisic, Luke R. Johnson, David M. Benedek, Robert J. Ursano
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049183
Abstract: A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial function may be important in brain development and psychiatric disorders. However, detailed expression profiles of those genes in human brain development and fear-related behavior remain unclear. Using microarray data available from the public domain and the Gene Ontology analysis, we identified the genes and the functional categories associated with chronological age in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the caudate nucleus (CN) of psychiatrically normal humans ranging in age from birth to 50 years. Among those, we found that a substantial number of genes in the PFC (115) and the CN (117) are associated with the GO term: mitochondrion (FDR qv <0.05). A greater number of the genes in the PFC (91%) than the genes in the CN (62%) showed a linear increase in expression during postnatal development. Using quantitative PCR, we validated the developmental expression pattern of four genes including monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein (NDUFV1), mitochondrial uncoupling protein 5 (SLC25A14) and tubulin beta-3 chain (TUBB3). In mice, overall developmental expression pattern of MAOB, SLC25A14 and TUBB3 in the PFC were comparable to the pattern observed in humans (p<0.05). However, mice selectively bred for high fear did not exhibit normal developmental changes of MAOB and TUBB3. These findings suggest that the genes associated with mitochondrial function in the PFC play a significant role in brain development and fear-related behavior.
Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety  [PDF]
Yi-Chun Yen,Elmira Anderzhanova,Rainer Landgraf,Carsten T. Wotjak
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00103
Abstract: We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.
Characterization of Pancreatic Islets in Two Selectively Bred Mouse Lines with Different Susceptibilities to High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance  [PDF]
Mototsugu Nagao, Akira Asai, Wataru Inaba, Momoyo Kawahara, Yuki Shuto, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Daisuke Sanoyama, Hitoshi Sugihara, Soroku Yagihashi, Shinichi Oikawa
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084725
Abstract: Hereditary predisposition to diet-induced type 2 diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. We recently established 2 mouse lines with different susceptibilities (resistant and prone) to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance by selective breeding (designated selectively bred diet-induced glucose intolerance-resistant [SDG-R] and -prone [SDG-P], respectively). To investigate the predisposition to HFD-induced glucose intolerance in pancreatic islets, we examined the islet morphological features and functions in these novel mouse lines. Male SDG-P and SDG-R mice were fed a HFD for 5 weeks. Before and after HFD feeding, glucose tolerance was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Morphometry and functional analyses of the pancreatic islets were also performed before and after the feeding period. Before HFD feeding, SDG-P mice showed modestly higher postchallenge blood glucose levels and lower insulin increments in OGTT than SDG-R mice. Although SDG-P mice showed greater β cell proliferation than SDG-R mice under HFD feeding, SDG-P mice developed overt glucose intolerance, whereas SDG-R mice maintained normal glucose tolerance. Regardless of whether it was before or after HFD feeding, the isolated islets from SDG-P mice showed impaired glucose- and KCl-stimulated insulin secretion relative to those from SDG-R mice; accordingly, the expression levels of the insulin secretion-related genes in SDG-P islets were significantly lower than those in SDG-R islets. These findings suggest that the innate predispositions in pancreatic islets may determine the susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes. SDG-R and SDG-P mice may therefore be useful polygenic animal models to study the gene–environment interactions in the development of type 2 diabetes.
Skeletal Muscle Characterization of Japanese Quail Line Selectively Bred for Lower Body Weight as an Avian Model of Delayed Muscle Growth with Hypoplasia  [PDF]
Young Min Choi, Yeunsu Suh, Sangsu Shin, Kichoon Lee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095932
Abstract: This study was designed to extensively characterize the skeletal muscle development in the low weight (LW) quail selected from random bred control (RBC) Japanese quail in order to provide a new avian model of impaired and delayed growth in physically normal animals. The LW line had smaller embryo and body weights than the RBC line in all age groups (P<0.05). During 3 to 42 d post-hatch, the LW line exhibited approximately 60% smaller weight of pectoralis major muscle (PM), mainly resulting from lower fiber numbers compared to the RBC line (P<0.05). During early post-hatch period when myotubes are still actively forming, the LW line showed impaired PM growth with prolonged expression of Pax7 and lower expression levels of MyoD, Myf-5, and myogenin (P<0.05), likely leading to impairment of myogenic differentiation and consequently, reduced muscle fiber formation. Additionally, the LW line had delayed transition of neonatal to adult myosin heavy chain isoform, suggesting delayed muscle maturation. This is further supported by the finding that the LW line continued to grow unlike the RBC line; difference in the percentages of PMW to body weights between both quail lines diminished with increasing age from 42 to 75 d post-hatch. This delayed muscle growth in the LW line is accompanied by higher levels of myogenin expression at 42 d (P<0.05), higher percentage of centered nuclei at 42 d (P<0.01), and greater rate of increase in fiber size between 42 and 75 d post-hatch (P<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Analysis of physiological, morphological, and developmental parameters during muscle development of the LW quail line provided a well-characterized avian model for future identification of the responsible genes and for studying mechanisms of hypoplasia and delayed muscle growth.
A brain microdialysis study on 5-HT release in freely moving rat lines selectively bred for differential 5-HT1A receptor function
Gonzalez, L.E.;Parada, M.A.;Tucci, S.;Teneud, L.;Overstreet, D.H.;Hernandez, L.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2003000200014
Abstract: breeding for high and low hypothermic responses to systemic administration of a serotonin1a (5-ht1a) receptor agonist (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 8-oh-dpat) has resulted in high dpat-sensitive (hds) and low dpat-sensitive (lds) lines of rats, respectively. these lines also differ in several behavioral measures associated with stress. in the present microdialysis study we observed that basal 5-ht concentrations in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus did not differ significantly between hds and lds rats. thus, behavioral differences between the hds and lds lines might not be attributed to differences in basal 5-ht release. however, both lines had lower basal levels of 5-ht release than their randomly bred control group (random dpat-sensitive, rds) in the prefrontal cortex (mean ± sem, pg/20 μl, was 3.0 ± 0.4 for lds, 3.8 ± 0.3 for hds and 6.4 ± 0.6 for rds; f(2,59) = 5.8, p<0.005). the administration of (±)-fenfluramine (10 mg/kg) induced a greater increase in hippocampal 5-ht levels in hds rats (500%) as compared with lds (248%) or rds (243%) rats (p<0.0001). there were no significant differences in the prefrontal cortex among lines, with a fenfluramine-induced 5-ht increase of about 900% in the three groups. this differential response to fenfluramine may be due to functional alterations of hippocampal 5-ht reuptake sites in the hds line.
A brain microdialysis study on 5-HT release in freely moving rat lines selectively bred for differential 5-HT1A receptor function  [cached]
Gonzalez L.E.,Parada M.A.,Tucci S.,Teneud L.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2003,
Abstract: Breeding for high and low hypothermic responses to systemic administration of a serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, 8-OH-DPAT) has resulted in high DPAT-sensitive (HDS) and low DPAT-sensitive (LDS) lines of rats, respectively. These lines also differ in several behavioral measures associated with stress. In the present microdialysis study we observed that basal 5-HT concentrations in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus did not differ significantly between HDS and LDS rats. Thus, behavioral differences between the HDS and LDS lines might not be attributed to differences in basal 5-HT release. However, both lines had lower basal levels of 5-HT release than their randomly bred control group (random DPAT-sensitive, RDS) in the prefrontal cortex (mean ± SEM, pg/20 μl, was 3.0 ± 0.4 for LDS, 3.8 ± 0.3 for HDS and 6.4 ± 0.6 for RDS; F(2,59) = 5.8, P<0.005). The administration of (±)-fenfluramine (10 mg/kg) induced a greater increase in hippocampal 5-HT levels in HDS rats (500%) as compared with LDS (248%) or RDS (243%) rats (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in the prefrontal cortex among lines, with a fenfluramine-induced 5-HT increase of about 900% in the three groups. This differential response to fenfluramine may be due to functional alterations of hippocampal 5-HT reuptake sites in the HDS line.
Mapping of neurokinin-like immunoreactivity in the human brainstem
Rafael Cove?as, Francisco Martin, Magdalena Belda, Victor Smith, Pablo Salinas, Eva Rivada, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Jose Narvaez, Pilar Marcos, Gerard Tramu, Salvador Gonzalez-Baron
BMC Neuroscience , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-4-3
Abstract: Clusters of immunoreactive cell bodies and high densities of neurokinin-immunoreactive fibers were located in the periaqueductal gray, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and in the reticular formation of the medulla, pons and mesencephalon. Moreover, immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the inferior colliculus, the raphe obscurus, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, and in the midline of the anterior medulla oblongata. In general, immunoreactive fibers containing neurokinin were observed throughout the whole brainstem. In addition to the nuclei mentioned above, the highest densities of such immunoreactive fibers were located in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the lateral reticular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the superior colliculus, the substantia nigra, the nucleus ambiguus, the gracile nucleus, the cuneate nucleus, the motor hypoglossal nucleus, the medial and superior vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi and the interpeduncular nucleus.The widespread distribution of immunoreactive structures containing neurokinin in the human brainstem indicates that neurokinin might be involved in several physiological mechanisms, acting as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator.The mammalian tachykinin peptides include neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB) and substance P (SP) [1]. It is known that these three neuropeptides have a common C-terminal amino acid sequence and that NKA and SP are derived from the preprotachykinin A gene, whereas NKB is derived from the preprotachykinin B gene. It is also known that the biological actions of NKA, NKB and SP are mediated by three receptors, named neurokinin (NK)-1, NK-2 and NK-3 [2]. Thus, the tachykinins have been implicated in several physiological actions such as salivation, the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, depolarization of central neurons, hyperactivity, interaction with dopaminergic A-10 neurons mediating behavioral activation, regulation of blood pressure, and the transmission
Infantile Colic
D M Roberts, M Ostapchuk
South African Family Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Infantile colic can be distressing to parents whose infant is inconsolable during crying episodes. Colic is often defined by the “rule of three”: crying for more than three hours per day, for more than three days per week, and for longer than three weeks in an infant who is well-fed and otherwise healthy. The physician's role is to ensure that there is no organic cause for the cry-ing, offer balanced advice on treatments, and provide support to the family. Colic is a diagnosis of exclusion that is made after performing a careful history and physical examination to rule out less common organic causes. Treatment is limited. Feeding changes usually are not advised. Medications available in the United States have not been proved effective in the treatment of colic, and most behaviour interventions have not been proved to be more effective than placebo. Families may turn to untested resources for help, and the physician should offer sound advice about these treatments. Above all, parents need reassurance that their baby is healthy and that colic is self-limited with no long-term adverse effects. Physicians should watch for signs of continuing distress in the child and family, particularly in families whose resources are strained already. South African Family Practice Vol. 49 (1) 2006: pp. 44-47
Affective assessment
Oakland, Thomas;
Psicologia Escolar e Educacional , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-85571997000100002
Abstract: the purpose of this paper are to present a taxonomy of affective qualities, to describe basic terms, to discuss principles that help ensure accuracy, to provide examples of methods commonly used to measure affective qualities, and to provide information that may further assist persons seeking more in-depth knowledge of some topics.
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