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Bioluminescence in Aquatic Organisms
Tulay Altun,Filiz celi,Durail Danabas
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Bioluminescence is a light production phenomena performed by means of chemical reactions or cellular secretion existing in the cells of living organisms or in the cells and organs of the symbiotic organisms which live together with them. In this process, at least two chemicals, luciferin and luciferase, are required. Bioluminescence can be seen in a wide range of groups of aquatic organisms such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, annelids, molluscs, ctenophores, shrimps and fishes. Bioluminescence in aquatic organisms, just like in terrestrial bioluminescent organisms, provides hiding and protection, attraction of prey or communication. The most common example of bioluminescence is light production by Noctiluca miliaris called as "phosphorescence in the sea". Because it is thought that light-producing organisms (bioluminescent) may be used or cultured for many aims in the future, formation of bioluminescence, its usage by aquatic organisms and its effects will be tried to explain in this review.
The Advantages and the Problems of Multimedia-aided English Reading Instruction  [cached]
Liming Han
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.3.320-323
Abstract: Reading plays an important role in the process of language learning. In the modern society, teachers can apply the multimedia technology to assist the reading instruction. On the basis of the research of scholars in this or relevant field, this paper firstly centers on the advantages of multimedia-aided English reading instruction by comparison to the traditional instruction. And then the paper states the problems of the multimedia-aided English reading instruction in China to promote the application of multimedia aids to English reading instruction.
Effect of student engagement on multimedia-assisted instruction  [cached]
Hsiu-Ping Yueh,Weijane Lin,Jo-Yi Huang,Horn-Jiunn Sheen
Knowledge Management & E-Learning : an International Journal , 2012,
Abstract: This study applied multimedia in a general engineering and technology course in Taiwan and evaluated the effectiveness of multimedia-assisted instruction and learning. The course presented trends in technological development and the achievements of Taiwanese industries and research institutes from a historical perspective, and overviewed the technology industries and industrial transformation development in Taiwan. The course units adopted multimedia to support class teaching and student learning, and a survey was conducted to collect students’ attitudes and perception toward multimedia-assisted instruction and learning in the course. Research data were collected from 45 male and 9 female students with varied academic and cultural backgrounds. Results showed that multimedia videos help raise students’ awareness of learning issues, improve their understanding of content, and increase the depth of their learning. Almost all students liked the approach of using multimedia to assist teaching and learning, preferring this approach over traditional lecture-based instruction. They also would recommend this course to their peers. This study also found that the degree of students’ engagement caused variance in the students’ perception of multimedia helpfulness in assisting their learning. Finally, this study further proposes suggestions in both design and research on applications of multimedia-enhanced learning in engineering and technology education.
Design and Development of an Augmented Reality Book and Mobile Application to Enhance the Handwriting-Instruction for Pre-School Children  [PDF]
Nor Farzana Syaza Jeffri, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510030
This paper presents the development of an augmented reality book and application to enhance the pre-school handwriting instruction. The process of learning the handwriting skill is complicated, repetitive and time-consuming. Often pre-school learners are quick to lose focus, enthusiasm as well as motivation. This could be due to the possibility that they are not taught in a manner that matches their learning modality. Augmented reality is a technology that allows for the augmentation of virtual objects in the forms of 3D models, animations or sounds, superimposed upon real-world objects and landscapes viewed through a mobile device. This paper describes how an AR handwriting instruction workbook was designed through incorporation of these AR features in order to address the needs of different types of learners. Initial feedbacks from a survey among preschool instructors based on the developed prototype reveals the potential of AR technology as tool to engage and motivate learners for pre-school handwriting instruction.
Developing a Mobile Learning System in Augmented Reality Context  [PDF]
Da-Ren Chen,Mu-Yen Chen,Tien-Chi Huang,Wen-Pao Hsu
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/594627
Abstract: In recent years, many emerging information technologies have been applied to learning environments in an attempt to overcome drawbacks associated with traditional teaching environments. Some of these technologies have been shown to improve learning outcomes and learning motivation. Advances in wireless communications have raised research interest in the development of ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environments and their impact on learner attitudes and behavior. This study reports the use of augmented reality (AR) technology to create virtual objects for use in mobile devices to create a context-aware, AR-enabled guided tour application for outdoor learning. The goal is to provide learners with a friendly, interactive interface and rich, engaging media to stimulate intrinsic motivation and learning performance. The main advantages of the proposed system include the following: (1) it helps stimulate learning intention through pursuing outdoor learning objectives, (2) AR technology provides learners with contextual information related to the outdoor learning environment, and (3) it enhances learner retention of teaching contents easily with the situated learning strategy. 1. Introduction Rapid advances in information technology have created venues for organized learning beyond the traditional classroom, especially through the use of mobile devices to create opportunities for context-aware ubiquitous learning [1, 2]. In traditional classroom learning environments, instruction is conducted through lectures and activities provided by the teacher along with course books and audio-visual materials. Learners listen to their teachers’ instruction while receiving visual cues through PowerPoint presentations, handouts, or whiteboard content before participating in learning activities or group discussions. However, traditional classroom learning is normally quite structured and is limited to preexisting teaching materials or preplanned learning activities. M-learning has recently emerged as a trend in instruction, offering learners with networked mobile devices unprecedented convenience and allowing them to learn anywhere, anytime [3–5]. In contrast to traditional classroom instruction, m-learning allows learners to use Internet resources, multimedia technologies, and virtual team skills in online discussions, exams, video conferencing, and other activities. Ubiquitous learning overcomes time and place limitations to allow engagement in reality-based learning applications through which they experience, explore, and develop problem solving skills, thus improving
Prediction of metal toxicity in aquatic organisms
Wen-Xiong Wang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5403-9
Abstract: Metal pollution has been a major environmental problem in China with the increasing industrialization. The prediction of metal toxicity is extremely challenging due to the complex metal handling and sequestration strategies of different aquatic organisms. In this review, the recent progress made in this area is discussed. In particular, the subcellular partitioning model which has gained recognition in recent years is highlighted. The subcellular partitioning model appears to be dependable for predicting the toxicity in unicellular phytoplankton. It is important to understand the differential ways that metals bind to different subcellular pools and their ecotoxicological significance in aquatic organisms under different exposure regimes. It is also critical to appreciate that every metal is unique to each aquatic species. Despite the huge progress made over the past 30 years, much remains to be done to fully understand metal toxicity in aquatic organisms.
The Application and Perspective of Multimedia Technology in Chemistry Experimental Instruction in China  [PDF]
Dimei Chen, Xia Chen, Wenxia Gao
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.44035

The paper elaborates the features and superiority of applying multimedia technology to chemistry experiment instruction in details, and introduces the practical application of multimedia technology in demonstration experiment. The application of multimedia technology in chemistry experimental instruction has its own features, namely enjoyment, great information capacity, sharing network, easy operation and flexibility. The paper concludes the superiority of applying multimedia technology to the chemistry experiment instruction from nine perspectives. Meanwhile, the paper elaborates its disadvantages. Simulated experiments cannot take place of real experiments. The relationship among teachers, students and multimedia needs to be dealt with properly, and the multimedia courseware should be scientific. Prospective forecast of multimedia technology in chemistry experimental instruction is also demonstrated.

General Architecture and Instruction Set Enhancements for Multimedia Applications
Mansour Assaf,Aparna Rajesh
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2007,
Abstract: The present day multimedia applications (MMAs) are driving the computing industry as every application being developed is using multimedia in one or the other way. Computer architects are building computer systems with powerful processors to handle the MMAs. There have been tremendous changes in the design of the processors to handle different types of MMAs. We see a lot of such application specific processors today in the industry; different architectures have been proposed for processing MMAs such as VLIW, superscalar (general-purpose processor enhanced with a multimedia extension such as MMX), vector architecture, SIMD architectures, and reconfigurable computing devices. Many of the General Purpose Processors (GPPs) require coprocessors to handle graphics and sound and usually those processors are either expensive or incompatible. Keeping these and the demands MMAs in mind designers have made changes to GPPs; many GPP Vendors have added instructions to their Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). All these processors use similar techniques to execute multimedia instructions. This survey paper investigates the enhancements made to the GPPS in their general Architecture as well as the ISA. We will present the many different techniques used by GPP designers to handle MMAs, the present day GPP available architectures, compare different techniques, and concludes this survey.
Effects of Exposure to Semiconductor Nanoparticles on Aquatic Organisms  [PDF]
Kenton Leigh,Jennifer Bouldin,Roger Buchanan
Journal of Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/397657
Abstract: Because of their unique physical, optical, and mechanical properties, nanomaterials hold great promise in improving on a wide variety of current technologies. Consequently, their use in research and consumer products is increasing rapidly, and contamination of the environment with various nanomaterials seems inevitable. Because surface waters receive pollutants and contaminants from many sources including nanoparticles and act as reservoirs and conduits for many environmental contaminants, understanding the potential impacts of nanoparticles on the organisms within these environments is critical to evaluating their potential toxicity. While there is much to be learned about interactions between nanomaterials and aquatic systems, there have been a number of recent reports of interactions of quantum dots (QDs) with aquatic environments and aquatic organisms. This review is focused on providing a summary of recent work investigating the impacts of quantum dots on aquatic organisms. 1. Introduction In 2006, the net global market value of nanotechnology was estimated to be US $10.5 billion [1] and is projected to increase to US $26.7 billion by 2015 [2]. As the use of nanomaterials increases, it seems inevitable that nanoparticles will be released into the environment. Despite the rapid increase in the use of nanomaterials in research, industrial, and consumer products, information about their possible effects on organisms and the environment is lacking. Fortunately, there have been a number of recent reports relevant to understanding the fate and effects of nanoparticles in the environment. Many of these reports specifically address questions about the potential impacts of nanoparticles on aquatic environments. Because surface waters receive pollutants and contaminants, including nanoparticles, from many sources and act as reservoirs and conduits for many environmental contaminants, understanding the potential impacts of nanoparticles on the organisms within these environments is critical to evaluating their potential toxicity. At present, there is little information about how many nanoparticles enter aquatic environments and their routes of entry, but potential routes include atmospheric deposition, leaching from soil, direct input from wastewater discharges [3], and ground water reservoirs [4]. Evidence for possible contamination of water sources with nanoparticles has already been reported by Mueller and Nowack [5], who developed a model and estimated that levels of silver and TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in freshwaters at the time were 0.3,
Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms
Duncan J Colquhoun, Samuel Duodu
Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-47
Abstract: 1. Introduction2. Francisella taxonomy and nomenclature2.1. The fish pathogenic Francisella2.2. The diversity of as yet undescribed Francisella3. The disease/s3.1. Differential diagnoses3.2. Farmed vs. wild fish3.3. Host specificity3.4. Zoonotic potential4. Transmission and environmental survival5. Diagnosis and detection of Francisella infections5.1. Macroscopic examination5.2. Histological examination5.3. Culture5.3.1. Selective agar media5.3.2. Culture temperature for primary isolation5.4. Cell-culture5.5. Differential phenotypical identification5.6. Molecular identification5.6.1. Universal PCR combined with DNA sequencing5.6.2. Specific PCR and LAMP5.6.3. In situ hybridization6. Control/treatment7. Bacterial pathogenesis and host response8. Vaccination9. Concluding remarks10. Competing interests11. Authors' contributions12. ReferencesAs the aquaculture industry worldwide intensifies and diversifies, it is natural that domestication of new aquaculture species results in recognition of "new" infectious agents and diseases. This has been demonstrated repeatedly over the years. In recent years bacteria belonging to the genus Francisella have "emerged" as serious pathogens of various fish species, both farmed and wild, from various geographical regions worldwide [1-7]. The most recent addition to the list represents the first isolation of a molluscan pathogenic Francisella sp. [8]. Francisellosis associated with aquatic organisms is probably not truly novel. The recent spate of diagnoses may be partially related to the increased awareness of such infections combined with adoption of suitable culture media and the widespread availability of non-culture based molecular detection techniques. However, and for whatever reason, it is clear that Francisella infections in fish are serious and more widely distributed than previously thought just a few years ago. Given the relative recent nature of the discovery of these diseases, much scientific work is currently in progress
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