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Antidiabetic effect of kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex isolated from Garcinia kola seeds, in Wistar rats
OA Adaramoye
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Hypoglycaemic effect of kolaviron (KV), (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats has been established. Objectives: To evaluate the possible protective effects of KV on cardiac, renal and hepatic tissues of STZ-diabetic rats. Methods: This study consists of four groups of 6 rats each. Groups one and two contained non-diabetic and untreateddiabetic rats, respectively. Groups three and four were made up of KV- and glibenclamide (GB) - treated diabetic rats, respectively. Results: STZ-intoxication caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in the relative weight of liver in diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats had significant increase (p<0.05) in the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), á-amylase and HbA1c. A marked and significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of cardiac, renal and liver marker indices such as serum creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, urea and alanine aminotransferase were observed in untreated diabetic rats. Also, untreated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) elevated urinary glucose and protein and, lowered creatinine clearance. In KV- and GB- treated groups, the levels of FBG, á-amylase and HbA1c were significantly (p<0.05) reduced, while treatment with KV significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the cardiac, renal and liver marker indices. Conclusion: KV offered significant antidiabetic and tissues protective effects in the rats.
Comparative Effects of Vitamin E and Kolaviron (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Renal Oxidative Damage in Mice  [PDF]
O.A. Adaramoye
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: It became evident in this study that carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), can induce renal oxidative damage. The hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E (Vit. E) and kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from the seeds of Garcinia kola are well documented. The present study was designed to investigate and compare the renal protective effects of Vit. E and KV in mice given CCl4 (1.2 g kg-1) intra-peritoneally thrice a week for two weeks. CCl4 caused a marked increase in serum and renal lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 106 and 225%, respectively. Treatment with KV at 100 and 200 mg kg-1 and Vit. E at 100 mg kg-1 significantly (p<0.05) decreased the CCl4-mediated increase in LPO. Furthermore, CCl4-intoxication decreased the levels of renal reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) by 44, 56 and 43%, respectively. Treatment with KV and Vit. E significantly (p<0.05) ameliorated the GSH and SOD levels. Specifically, KV at 100 and 200 mg kg-1 increased GSH by 32 and 27% and SOD levels by 50 and 53%, respectively. Likewise, treatment with Vit. E increased GSH and SOD levels by 31 and 53%, respectively. Effects on markers of renal functions showed that CCl4-intoxication significantly (p<0.05) elevated serum urea and creatinine by 287 and 186%, respectively. While treatment with Vit. E decreased serum urea and creatinine by 60 and 55%, respectively, KV produced insignificant (p>0.05) effect on these parameters. This study found KV unable to protect against CCl4-induced renal damage but confirmed the potency of Vit. E to enhance recovery from renal oxidative damage.
Neuroprotective Effects of Kolaviron, a Biflavonoid Complex of Garcinia kola, on Rats Hippocampus against Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity
Omamuyovwi M Ijomone,Polycarp U Nwoha,Olayemi K Olaibi,Augustine U Obi
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the protective effects of kolaviron on brain weight and behavioural performance and the histology of the hippocampus of adult Wistar rats following methamphetamine challenge. Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult Wistar rats weighing between 150-200 g, randomly assigned into four groups of six each (Groups A, B, C, D) were used for this research. Group A served as control, while groups B and C were given single dose methamphetamine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally after group C was pre-treated with kolaviron (200 mg/kg) for 7 days and group D received cornoil (vehicle for kolaviron) only. Results: High level of methamphetamine-induced stereotypic movement was observed, and the onset was delayed by kolaviron administration. Animals administered methamphetamine only, showed significantly poor behavioural performance on the water maze after treatment when compared to the other groups (P<0.05). Histological analysis revealed neuronal destruction of the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus following methamphetamine administration. Kolaviron to some extent prevented destruction of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in pre-treated rats.Conclusion: The present findings show the neuro-destructive effects of methamphetamine on hippocampal neurons and its ability to negatively affect behaviour and that kolaviron could prevent such behavioural deficit and also afford some protection to the hippocampus.
ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF GARCINIA KOLA (LEAF)  [PDF]
Oloyede O.I,Afolabi A.M
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Garcinia kola leaves have long been regarded as pharmacologically potent plant in folk medicine for their medicinal properties in tropical Africa. . In the present study, the ability of ethanolicextract of Garcinia kola leaves at concentrations (3.3-40ìg/ml) to prevent 60ìì Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain and liver homogenate was assessed using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay (TBARS) invitro . Fe2+ chelating ability of the extract was a;sodetermined. (1mM FeSO4). The inhibitory effect of Garcinia kola leaves on lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate and the iron chelating activity were concentration - dependent exhibiting an antioxidant activity against free radicals. The extract showed its highest inhibition at the same concentration (26.7ìg/ml) in both liver and brain homogenate with %inhibition of 64.1% and 38.2% respectively. Therefore, the leaves of the plant could be considered to have significant natural antioxidant activity against the initiation of some prevalent diseases.
Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola
A.O. Adesuyi,I.K. Elumm,F.B. Adaramola,A.G.M. Nwokocha
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: The Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola were Investigated. The Nutritional Analyses involves Proximate analyses; Anti-Nutrient composition and Mineral composition. The Phytochemical parameters carried out were Flavonoids; Phenol; Alkaloids; Saponin and Tannin. The proximate Analyses showed that the sample has high level of Carbohydrate 88.30%, little amount of Crude Fibre and Protein 1.23 and 1.86%, respectively and negligible amount of Ash content 0.47% and Crude Fat 0.19%. Also a considerable level 7.6% of moisture was shown. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of Carbohydrate, dietary fibre and Protein. The Anti-Nutrient composition presents are in negligible amount. The Parameters are Oxalate (0.423 g/100 g), Phytate (0.57 g/100 g) and Trypsin Inhibitor (0.37 g/100 g). The Mineral content show a high level of calcium (2200 ppm),Potassium (968 ppm) and Sodium (852 ppm). Other mineral analysed were found to range from moderate to negligible. Garcinia Kola could be a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of Anti-Nutrients found that could prevent the absorption of these minerals. The result also show a high level of Saponin (2.471%), Flavonoids (2.041%) and Cardiac Glycosides (3.421%). Alkaloids and Tannins were present in Considerable amount 0.647 and 0.34%, respectively. But Phenol is present in negligible amount (0.147%). With the high level of Cardiac glycosides, Garcinia kola can be used as anti-inflammatory and as active components of drugs derived from plants.
Marketing and distribution of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in southwest Nigeria: opportunity for development of a biological product
FD Babalola, BO Agbeja
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2010,
Abstract: The study evaluates the different marketing of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) starting from the point of production with the view to improving the trade. Farmers have Garcinia trees on their farm and these were spared during land preparation for farming. Marketing of Garcinia nuts generated appreciable income to the producers and intermediaries. Unfortunately, Garcinia trees are currently on the decrease as a result of deforestation; this therefore calls for urgent attention on the establishment of Garcinia plantation. Diversification of the products should be encouraged to create more market opportunities and accrued benefits.
Antibacterial Activity of Garcinia kola and Cola nitida Seed Extracts
II Indabawa, AH Arzai
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) and Cola nitida (Kola nut) against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied. Results showed that alcohol extract of Garcinia kola was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae at various concentrations, with the latter displaying the lowest sensitivity. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were completely resistant. Hot water extract of the same plant was however, active against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections. Key word: Garcinia kola, Bitter Kola, Cola nitida, Kola nut, Antibacterial, extracts.
Optimization of ethanol production from Garcinia kola (bitter kola) pulp agrowaste
HC Nzelibe, CU Okafoagu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Optimization options for production of ethanol from bitter kola (Garcinia kola) pulp wastes were investigated. The methods are degumming, saccharification, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis. Degumming was effectively achieved at 96 h of saccaharification. The concentration of reducing sugar for the treated sample (acid hydrolysed and saccharification) and control sample (saccharification) was maximum at 144 h (86.2 g/100g) and 96 h (31.5 g/100 g), respectively. Ethanol yield from treated sample and control sample using baker’s yeast was maximum at 120 h (70.7 g/L) and 192 h (29.3 g/L), respectively. Alkaline hydrolysis with 0.25 M sodium hydroxide has no significant effect on concentration of reducing sugar and ethanol yield. Acid hydrolysis with 2.5 M sulphuric acid and saccharification using Aspergillus niger are better methods for optimizing ethanol production from bitter kola pulp waste. Solar drying of the bitter kola pulp waste significantly enhanced ethanol production.
Clinical effects of Garcinia kola in knee osteoarthritis
Olayinka O Adegbehingbe, Saburi A Adesanya, Thomas O Idowu, Oluwakemi C Okimi, Oyesiku A Oyelami, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1749-799x-3-34
Abstract: Prospective randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, clinical trial approved by the institutional medical ethics review board and written informed consent obtained from each patient. All KOA patients presenting at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital complex were recruited into the study. The patients were grouped into four (A = Placebo, B = Naproxen, C = Garcinia kola, D = Celebrex). The drugs and placebo were given twice a day per oral route. Each dose consisted of 200 mg of G. kola, Naproxen (500 mg), Celebrex (200 mg) and Ascorbic acid (100 mg). The primary outcome measure over six weeks study period was the change in mean WOMAC pain visual analogue scales (VAS). Secondary outcome measures included the mean change in joint stiffness and physical function (mobility/walking).143 patients were recruited, 84 (58.7%, males – 24, females – 60) satisfied the selection criteria and completed the study. The effect of knee osteoarthritis bilateralism among the subjects was not significant on their outcome (p > 0.05). The change in the mean WOMAC pain VAS after six weeks of G. kola was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (p < 0.001). Multiple comparisons of the mean VAS pain change of G. kola group was not lowered significantly against the naproxen and celebrex groups (p > 0.05). The onset of G. kola symptomatic pain relief was faster than the placebo (p < 0.001). However, it was slower than the active comparators (p > 0.05). The duration of therapeutic effect of Garcinia kola was longer than the placebo (p > 0.001). G. kola period of effect was less than naproxen and celebrex (p < 0.001). G. kola subjects had improved mean change mobility/walking after six weeks better than the control group(p < 0.001). The mean change in mobility of the G. kola group when compared to the active comparators was not significantly better (p < 0.05). The mean change of knee joint stiffness (p < 0.001) and the change of mean WOMAC score (p < 0.001) were improved on
Histopathologicaltudies on the Effects of the Ethanolic Extract of the fruits of Garcinia kola on Selected Organs of the Dog
Nottidge,H. O; Omobowale,T. O; Taiwo,V. O; Omotoso,M. A;
International Journal of Morphology , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022008000400044
Abstract: the ethanolic extract of garcinia kola was administered to dogs to investígate the possible effects on selected organs of the dog. two doses of the extract (500mg/kg and looomg/kg) were daily administered to the test animals for a period of 6 weeks. a dose related response was observed in the severity of histopathological changes observed in the testes, liver, kidney and small intestine of animals in the test groups. despite the reported potentially beneficial effects of garcinia kola, its use as a medicinal plant should be with great caution.
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