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Thresholds in choice behaviour and the size of travel time savings  [PDF]
Andy Obermeyer,Martin Treiber,Christos Evangelinos
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Travel time savings are usually the most substantial economic benefit of transport infrastructure projects. However, questions surround whether small time savings are as valuable per unit as larger savings. Thresholds in individual choice behaviour are one reason cited for a discounted unit value for small time savings. We demonstrate different approaches for modelling these thresholds using synthetic and stated choice data. We show that the consideration of thresholds is important, even if the discounted unit value for small travel time savings is rejected for transport project appraisal. If an existing threshold is ignored in model estimation, the value of travel time savings will be biased. The presented procedure might also be useful to model thresholds in other contexts of choice behaviour.
The Potential Impact of Incentives on Managed Lane Travel  [PDF]
Namoo A. Han, Mark W. Burris
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2018.84014
Abstract: The use of managed lanes to control and maximize freeway throughput is increasing. One way of encouraging more managed lane use is through the implementation of incentives. In the Dallas-Fort Worth area, a managed lane is being added to the I-30 (Tom Landry freeway) and incentives to maximize the use of this lane were planned. Since the managed lanes were not yet open and the incentives were hypothetical, a stated preference survey was used to gauge the potential impact of the incentives on traveler behavior. The stated preference questions were designed using Db-efficient and random adaptive designs. The incentives were chosen by looking at other programs around the country and through discussion with transportation experts. Once ready, the survey was administered online to travelers in the area and a total of 898 usable responses were gathered. From the responses, a mixed-logit model was developed to describe and predict traveler behavior. From the model, elasticities were calculated to predict the impact of the incentives on mode choice. The model found that incentives with discounts and free trips (a transit fare discount, express bus service to downtown, a free trip for every X number of paid trips, and a discount offered to select businesses) were more effective at encouraging managed lane use. The other incentives (gift card worth $5 for every X number of trips and $5 in credit for every X number of trips taken by transit) had less of an impact.
A New Paradigm in User Equilibrium-Application in Managed Lane Pricing  [PDF]
Asapol Sinprasertkool, Siamak Ardekani, Stephen P. Mattingly
International Journal of Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: Ineffective use of the High-Occupancy-Vehicle (HOV) lanes has the potential to decrease theoverall roadway throughput during peak periods. Excess capacity in HOV lanes during peakperiods can be made available to other types of vehicles, including single occupancy vehicles(SOV) for a price (toll). Such dual use lanes are known as “Managed Lanes.” The main purposeof this research is to propose a new paradigm in user equilibrium to predict the travel demand fordetermining the optimal fare policy for managed lane facilities. Depending on their value of time,motorists may choose to travel on Managed Lanes (ML) or General Purpose Lanes (GPL). In thisstudy, the features in the software called Toll Pricing Modeler version 4.3 (TPM-4.3) aredescribed. TPM-4.3 is developed based on this new user equilibrium concept and utilizes it toexamine various operating scenarios. The software has two built-in operating objective options: 1)what would the ML operating speed be for a specified SOV toll, or 2) what should the SOV toll befor a desired minimum ML operating speed.A number of pricing policy scenarios are developed and examined on the proposed managedlane segment on Interstate 30 (I-30) in Grand Prairie, Texas. The software provides quantitativeestimates of various factors including toll revenue, emissions and system performance such asperson movement and traffic speed on managed and general purpose lanes. Overall, among thescenarios examined, higher toll rates tend to generate higher toll revenues, reduce overall COand NOx emissions, and shift demand to general purpose lanes. On the other hand, HOVpreferential treatments at any given toll level tend to reduce toll revenue, have no impact on orreduce system performance on managed lanes, and increase CO and NOx emissions.
Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada
Bonny Yee-Man Wong, Guy Faulkner, Ron Buliung, Hyacinth Irving
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-618
Abstract: Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST) were assessed using logistic regression.Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school.Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.Given the increasing trend of obesity and decline in physical activity in children and youth [1], the journey to and from school presents one source of energy expenditure through the use of non-motorized travel modes such as walking or biking. Children and youth who practice active school transport (typically walking or cycling) have been consistently found to be more physically active overall than children who do not [2]. However, studies consistently report decreasing prevalence of active school transport (AST) [3]. For example, in the Greater Toronto Area, C
Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s)  [PDF]
Ciprian Dobre
International Journal of Vehicular Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/604965
Abstract: Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH) is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency. 1. Introduction Increasing passenger and freight travel led to growing congestions, with negative consequences on wasted energy, time, and money, increased pollution, and threats to safety. Highways especially are preferred for traveling at high speeds between distant locations. But today the highway infrastructures tend to remain behind the increase in the number of cars traveling on them. As public authorities fail to build new highways fast enough, congestions start to appear on the already existing ones. Previous studies showed that building new highways is not the answer to solving congestions [1, 2], mainly because of the costs involved. Also the attractiveness of new routes just attracts more vehicles. In this paper we propose the intelligent lane reservation system for highway(s) (or ILRSH) system designed to increase the efficiency of already existing highways. ILRSH implements a system for “lane reservation.” We propose reserving a lane of the highway for cars traveling on high speeds. Drivers wanting to travel on this lane have to pay a small fee to reserve an empty slot for a specific portion on that lane. In exchange, they are guaranteed a
SAVINGS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MALAYSIA
Hafizah Hammad Ahmad Khan,Zaherawati Zakaria,Dr. Hussin Abdullah,Nik Suriati Nik Hassan
Economics and Finance Review , 2011,
Abstract: Nowadays, saving regularly been seen as an important source for investment which indirectly influences the economic growth. However, some past literature has shown that higher savings was due to higher economic growth. Therefore, this study aims to examine the causal relationship between savings and economic growth in Malaysia by using Granger causality test. The empirical analysis is based on time series data for 30 years from 1978 to 2007. The findings reveal that savings granger causes economic growth and not vice versa. Therefore, policies that encourage savings should be designated so as to enhance the economic growth in Malaysia. The availability of a wide range of savings instruments for savers and easily accessible instrument, for example, is a necessary condition for effective mobilization of the nation’s savings. In future research, the ongoing evolution of an innovative, dynamic and diversified financial system in Malaysia is necessary so as to always encourage Malaysian people to save and invest for their future.
Savings, subgoals, and reference points
Helen Colby,Gretchen B. Chapman
Judgment and Decision Making , 2013,
Abstract: Decision makers often save money for a specific goal by forgoing discretionary consumption and instead putting the money toward the savings goal. We hypothesized that reference points can be exploited to enhance this type of saving. In two hypothetical scenario studies, subjects made judgments of their likelihood to forgo a small expenditure in order to put the money toward the savings goal. In Experiment 1, judgments were higher if the savings goal was presented as composed of weekly subgoals (e.g., save $60 per week to buy a $180 iPod). Experiment 2 replicated this finding and demonstrated that the subgoal manipulation increased judgments of likelihood to save money only when the money saved from the foregone consumption would allow the decision maker to meet the weekly subgoal exactly (not under or overshoot it). These results suggest a reference point mechanism and point to ways that behavioral decision research can be harnessed to improve economic behaviors.
On the fractional Lane-Emden equation  [PDF]
Louis Dupaigne,Juan Davila,Juncheng Wei
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We classify solutions of finite Morse index of the fractional Lane- Emden equation
Saunders Mac Lane, the Knight of Mathematics  [PDF]
S. S. Kutateladze
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: This is a short obituary of Saunders Mac Lane (1909--2005).
THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS
RODICA IANOLE
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists) think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others) do so?” (Solow, 1987) – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?
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