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Homeostatis and Control-integration as basic principles in the physiology of man  [cached]
P. J. Pretorius
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1977, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v42i6.1226
Abstract: The word homeostasis, proposed by W.B. Cannon in 1929, is derived from the Greek word homois (— like, resembling, the same) and stasis (— standing, static). It denotes a condition of dynamic internal stability.of a system by means of coordinated reactions. These reactions of the system compensate or neutralize any disturbing influence from outside or inside the system. These disturbing influences would otherwise change the normal structural and functional characteristics of the system. Two im- portant aspects should be considered namely: (1) the aspect of internal stability and (2) coordinated reaction to assure stability. The idea of regulation or control and coordination in living beings is not new. The basic idea is found in Chinese, Egyptian, Hebrew and Greek literature. According to Langley several physiologists were responsible for establishing the theory of homeostasis.
The Basic Principles of Kin Sociality and Eusociality: Human Evolution  [PDF]
Ding-Yu Chung
Natural Science (NS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2016.81002
Abstract: The paper posits that kin sociality and eusociality are derived from the handicap-care principles based on the need-based care to the handicappers from the caregivers for the self-interest of the caregivers. In this paper, handicap is defined as the difficulty to survive and reproduce independently. Kin sociality is derived from the childhood handicap-care principle where the children are the handicapped children who receive the care from the kin caregivers in the inclusive kin group to survive. The caregiver gives care for its self-interest to reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of kin sociality contains the handicapped childhood and the caregiving adulthood. Eusociality is derived from the adulthood handicap-care principle where responsible adults are the handicapped adults who give care and receive care at the same time in the interdependent eusocial group to survive and reproduce its gene. Queen bees reproduce, but must receive care from worker bees that work but must rely on queen bees to reproduce. A caregiver gives care for its self-interest to survive and reproduce its gene. The individual’s gene of eusociality contains the handicapped childhood-adulthood and the caregiving adulthood. The chronological sequence of the sociality evolution is individual sociality without handicap, kin sociality with handicapped childhood, and eusociality with handicapped adulthood. Eusociality in humans is derived from bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The chronological sequence of the eusocial human evolution is 1) the eusocial early hominins with bipedalism and the mixed habitat, 2) the eusocial early Homo species with bipedalism, the larger brain, and the open habitat, 3) the eusocial late Homo species with bipedalism, the largest brain, and the unstable habitat, and 4) extended eusocial Homo sapiens with bipedalism, the shrinking brain, omnipresent imagination, and the harsh habitat. The omnipresence of imagination in human culture converts eusociality into extended eusociality with both perception and omnipresent imagination.
Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria
J.F.N. Abowei,C.C. Tawari
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish to maximize returns on processing investment. Fish canning, mince fish, fish silage, acid silage, fermented silage, composition of silage, nutritional value of fish silage, fish meal, raw materials for fish meal production, general processes in fish meal production: wet process, dry process, composition and quality, problems in fish processing, production of fish meal locally, local alternatives, comparison between fish silage and fish meal, product evaluation, quality control assessment methods, fish storage, fish anatomy and physiology, chemical composition of fish, fish spoilage types, fish off-flavor management and control, off-flavor mechanism, offflavor in live fish, other causes of off-flavor in fish, natural chemicals in fish, culture system and fish off-flavor control are reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products.
The First Stars and Galaxies - Basic Principles  [PDF]
Volker Bromm
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Understanding the formation of the first stars and galaxies is a key problem in modern cosmology. In these lecture notes, we will derive some of the basic physical principles underlying this emerging field. We will consider the basic cosmological context, the cooling and chemistry in primordial gas, the physics of gravitational instability, and the main properties of the first stars. We will conclude with a discussion of the observational signature of the first sources of light, to be probed with future telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope.
Basic ethical principles in dentistry  [PDF]
Zagra?anin Danica
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/sgs0502111z
Abstract: Ethical principles in medical profession originate from ancient times when Hippocrates has established basic principles of doctor’s ethics. Those are universal ethical principles, being actual till nowadays, but supplemented with new requirements. In this paper underlined were basic ethical principles for all dentists mandatory to follow.
Basic principles of bioethics and orthodox ethics  [PDF]
George Katsimigas George,Georgia Vasilopoulou
To Vima tou Asklipiou , 2010,
Abstract: The galloping progress in genetic and medical technology has led to the birth of the new science of bioethics. Bioethics examines the ethical dimension of problems arising from the application of the discoveries in the fields of biology and genetics and the effects they may have on nature and people in particular, from the aspect of anthropological teaching of the church Fathers.Aim: The aim of this article is: a) the delimitation of the scientific field of bioethics and its historical background, b) the emergence of the principles of the science of bioethics, c) the determination of the principles of orthodox morality though which the issues arising from the application of genetic engineering in human are faced.Material and Method: The method used to collect material for the writing of this article “principles of bioethics and orthodox morality”, was the widespread review of international and Greek bibliography. For the collection of the English bibliography the electronic database CINAHL was used. The keywords used in combination were Bioethics orthodox ethics. Results: The basic principle of bioethics are: a) the principle of autonomy, b) the principle of equivalence, c) the principle of not causing harm and pain, d) the principle of utility or beneficence, e) the principle of justice. The orthodox approach to the issues arising from the application of genetics human is based on the Orthodox anthropology, as expressed in the Bible and the texts of the Fathers of the Church. The centerpieces of the Biblical and Patristic anthropology are: a) that man was created as the exact replica of the Triune God and b) that man is a single psychosomatic entity.
The transcriptional program underlying the physiology of clostridial sporulation
Shawn W Jones, Carlos J Paredes, Bryan Tracy, Nathan Cheng, Ryan Sillers, Ryan S Senger, Eleftherios T Papoutsakis
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r114
Abstract: Using a sensitive DNA-microarray platform and 25 sampling timepoints, we reveal the genome-scale transcriptional basis of the Clostridium acetobutylicum sporulation program carried deep into stationary phase. A significant fraction of the genes displayed temporal expression in six distinct clusters of expression, which were analyzed with assistance from ontological classifications in order to illuminate all known physiological observations and differentiation stages of this industrial organism. The dynamic orchestration of all known sporulation sigma factors was investigated, whereby in addition to their transcriptional profiles, both in terms of intensity and differential expression, their activity was assessed by the average transcriptional patterns of putative canonical genes of their regulon. All sigma factors of unknown function were investigated by combining transcriptional data with predicted promoter binding motifs and antisense-RNA downregulation to provide a preliminary assessment of their roles in sporulation. Downregulation of two of these sigma factors, CAC1766 and CAP0167, affected the developmental process of sporulation and are apparently novel sporulation-related sigma factors.This is the first detailed roadmap of clostridial sporulation, the most detailed transcriptional study ever reported for a strict anaerobe and endospore former, and the first reported holistic effort to illuminate cellular physiology and differentiation of a lesser known organism.Clostridia are of major importance to human and animal health and physiology, cellulose degradation, bioremediation, and for the production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable resources [1]. These obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive, endospore-forming firmicutes include several major human and animal pathogens, such as C. botulinum, C. perfringens, C. difficile, and C. tetani, the cellulolytic C. thermocellum and C. phytofermentans, several ethanologenic [2], and many solventogenic (butanol, aceton
Thermodynamics Basic Principles  [PDF]
G. V. Skornyakov
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Logical and mathematical aspects of the basic concepts of thermodynamics are considered.
Basic ethical, professional and legal principles of biomedical research
Sigmund Simonsen,Magne Nylenna
SJWEH Supplements , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to ascertain and explain current basic legal principles for biomedical research involving human subjects, to compare these legal principles with research ethics and professional guidelines, and to explore briefly the relationship between ethics, professional guidelines, and the law. METHODS: A broad empirical and comparative analysis was carried out of international (European) and national law (primarily Norwegian) as it currently stands according to primary and valid sources of law (legal science or jurisprudence). RESULTS: The following 10 basic legal principles of international law were identified and explained: human primacy, informed consent, absence of alternatives, risks and benefits, scientific quality, confidentiality, freedom of research, openness and publication of results, advance examination, and personal responsibility. By and large, these principles concur with national law. For the most part, the legal principles concur with professional guidelines, and both are founded upon common values and ethical reflections (research ethics). CONCLUSIONS: Current regulation of biomedical research is centered around a few basic principles. The exact number, order, and wording are of less importance in this principal context. The extent of concurrence between ethics, professional guidelines, and the law suggest an anticipated and desirable intimate and interactive relationship. More can, however, be done at the international and national level to harmonize, simplify, and enunciate current regulations clearly, for example, through a holistic approach centered around the basics. This approach may enhance the knowledge, understanding, and observance of applicable regulations.
Mathematic principles underlying genetic structures  [PDF]
Matthew J. Berryman
Quantitative Biology , 2006,
Abstract: Many people are familiar with the physico-chemical properties of gene sequences. In this paper I present a mathematical perspective: how do mathematical principles such as information theory, coding theory, and combinatorics influence the beginnings of life and the formation of the genetic codes we observe today? What constraints on possible life forms are imposed by information-theoretical concepts? Further, I detail how mathematical principles can help us to analyse the genetic sequences we observe in the world today.
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