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The Shadow of the Italian Colonial Experience: The Impact of Collective Emotions on Intentions to Help the Victims’ Descendants  [cached]
Silvia Mari,Luca Andrighetto,Alessandro Gabbiadini,Federica Durante
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2010,
Abstract: Recalling the Italian colonial experience elicits the collective emotions of guilt, shame, and ingroup-focused anger. We expected that these emotions would predict different reparation intentions in favor of the colonized populations' descendants. Students and non-students were recruited (N = 152) and asked to rate their emotions of collective guilt, shame, and anger for the violence that their ingroup had perpetrated against colonized people. Results showed that shame affected intentions to provide economic compensation to current inhabitants of the ex-colonies. This relationship was mediated by concerns of damage for the ingroup's image. Anger toward the ingroup predicted intentions to help immigrants from the ex-colonies now living in Italy. Interestingly, empathy toward the outgroup mediated the latter relation. Finally, collective guilt was not reliably associated with any reparation strategy. These findings have implications for theory and for the historical collective memory of Italian colonialism.
On Elicitation Complexity and Conditional Elicitation  [PDF]
Rafael Frongillo,Ian A. Kash
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Elicitation is the study of statistics or properties which are computable via empirical risk minimization. While several recent papers have approached the general question of which properties are elicitable, we suggest that this is the wrong question---all properties are elicitable by first eliciting the entire distribution or data set, and thus the important question is how elicitable. Specifically, what is the minimum number of regression parameters needed to compute the property? Building on previous work, we introduce a new notion of elicitation complexity and lay the foundations for a calculus of elicitation. We establish several general results and techniques for proving upper and lower bounds on elicitation complexity. These results provide tight bounds for eliciting the Bayes risk of any loss, a large class of properties which includes spectral risk measures and several new properties of interest. Finally, we extend our calculus to conditionally elicitable properties, which are elicitable conditioned on knowing the value of another property, giving a necessary condition for the elicitability of both properties together.
Methodical Analysis of Western-Caucasian and East-Asian Basic Facial Expressions of Emotions Based on Specific Facial Regions  [PDF]
Gibran Benitez-Garcia, Tomoaki Nakamura, Masahide Kaneko
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2017.82006
Abstract: Facial expressions are the straight link for showing human emotions. Psychologists have established the universality of six prototypic basic facial expressions of emotions which they believe are consistent among cultures and races. However, some recent cross-cultural studies have questioned and to some degree refuted this cultural universality. Therefore, in order to contribute to the theory of cultural specificity of basic expressions, from a composite viewpoint of psychology and HCI (Human Computer Interaction), this paper presents a methodical analysis of Western-Caucasian and East-Asian prototypic expressions focused on four facial regions: forehead, eyes-eyebrows, mouth and nose. Our analysis is based on facial expression recognition and visual analysis of facial expression images of two datasets composed by four standard databases CK+, JAFFE, TFEID and JACFEE. A hybrid feature extraction method based on Fourier coefficients is proposed for the recognition analysis. In addition, we present a cross-cultural human study applied to 40 subjects as a baseline, as well as one comparison of facial expression recognition performance between the previous cross-cultural tests from the literature. With this work, it is possible to clarify the prior considerations for working with multicultural facial expression recognition and contribute to identifying the specific facial expression differences between Western-Caucasian and East-Asian basic expressions of emotions.
Context-Driven Elicitation of Default Requirements: an Empirical Validation  [PDF]
Corentin Burnay,Ivan Jureta,Stéphane Faulkner
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: In Requirements Engineering, requirements elicitation aims the acquisition of information from the stakeholders of a system-to-be. An important task during elicitation is to identify and render explicit the stakeholders' implicit assumptions about the system-to-be and its environment. Purpose of doing so is to identify omissions in, and conflicts between requirements. This paper o?ers a conceptual framework for the identi?cation and documentation of default requirements that stakeholders may be using. The framework is relevant for practice, as it forms a check-list for types of questions to use during elicitation. An empirical validation is described, and guidelines for elicitation are drawn.
Influence of Context on Decision Making during Requirements Elicitation  [PDF]
Corentin Burnay,Ivan Jureta,Stéphane Faulkner
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Requirements engineers should strive to get a better insight into decision making processes. During elicitation of requirements, decision making influences how stakeholders communicate with engineers, thereby affecting the engineers' understanding of requirements for the future information system. Empirical studies issued from Artificial Intelligence offer an adequate groundwork to understand how decision making is influenced by some particular contextual factors. However, no research has gone into the validation of such empirical studies in the process of collecting needs of the future system's users. As an answer, the paper empirically studies factors, initially identified by AI literature, that influence decision making and communication during requirements elicitation. We argue that the context's structure of the decision should be considered as a cornerstone to adequately study how stakeholders decide to communicate or not a requirement. The paper proposes a context framework to categorize former factors into specific families, and support the engineers during the elicitation process.
Decoding of Basic Emotions from Dynamic Visual Displays in Dementia: A Sign of Loss of Positivity Bias in Emotional Processing in Cognitively Unhealthy Aging?  [PDF]
Theofilos Gkinopoulos, Despina Moraitou, Georgia Papantoniou, Magdalini Nigritinou, Pantelis Ginos, Daphni Kotselidou
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.35034
Abstract: Difficulties in recognizing emotional signals might have serious implications for social interactions. Neurodegenerative diseases that affect neural networks involved in emotional displays processing might thus be connected with a disproportionate impairment in social life. This study aimed at examining the ability to decode basic emotions from dynamic visual displays in mild to moderate dementia. Thirty old adults diagnosed as demented, and 30 gender-matched healthy controls were administered a measure of emotion evaluation. The groups did not differ significantly in age and educational level. The emotion evaluation test was designed to examine a person’s ability to visually identify basic emotions and discriminate these from neutral expressions, when they were expressed as dynamic, subtle, day-to-day expressions. Results showed that demented participants had a great difficulty in recognizing the positively valenced emotions of happiness and pleasant surprise, while sadness, anger, and anxiety were the easiest emotions to recognize. Healthy controls were almost excellent on happiness recognition, while discrimination of non-emotional displays was the most difficult condition often mislabeled as anxiety or pleasant surprise. Results were mainly discussed in terms of socio-emotional selectivity theory positing that only older adults capable of exerting cognitive controlled favor emotional over non-emotional and positive over negative information.
Identification of parameters underlying emotions and a classification of emotions  [PDF]
N. Arvind Kumar
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: The standard classification of emotions involves categorizing the expression of emotions. In this paper, parameters underlying some emotions are identified and a new classification based on these parameters is suggested.
Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals  [cached]
Lisetti Christine L?titia,Nasoz Fatma
EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing , 2004,
Abstract: We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature) and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement). We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.
Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation  [PDF]
Toby Walsh
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time than to elicit individual preferences from multiple agents. We also study the connection between the strategic manipulation of an election and preference elicitation. We show that what we can manipulate affects the computational complexity of manipulation. In particular, we prove that there are voting rules which are easy to manipulate if we can change all of an agent's vote, but computationally intractable if we can change only some of their preferences. This suggests that, as with preference elicitation, a fine-grained view of manipulation may be informative. Finally, we study the connection between predicting the winner of an election and preference elicitation. Based on this connection, we identify a voting rule where it is computationally difficult to decide the probability of a candidate winning given a probability distribution over the votes.
Basic concepts and research activities at Italian forest sites of the Long Term Ecological Research network
Cocciufa C,Cerretti P,Matteucci G,Carpaneto GM
iForest : Biogeosciences and Forestry , 2011, DOI: 10.3832/ifor0576-004
Abstract: Italy entered the International Long Term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) in 2006, contributing a group of research sites in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems to the global network. Five forest sites are included in the Italian Network. They are representative of the main forest ecosystems in Italy and integrate 15 research stations managed by different institutes. Starting from LTER rationale and basic concepts, the first part of the paper reviews the status of LTER Italy forest sites, the strengths resulting from multidisciplinary expertise and site management, current activities and available datasets. Long term data series on key environmental parameters show the high scientific value of these sites, where monitoring and/or research is still ongoing. But two main LTER issues are currently arising in the international context: (1) overall consistency of datasets; (2) harmonization of sampling methods. For this reason, the second part of the paper investigates the suitability of Italian forest sites to address recommended long term research topics and ecological issues of global concern and to investigate the shift from in-site monitoring to cross-site cooperation and inter-site research.
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