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The Process of Accountability
Sayed Ahmed Naqi
International Business Management , 2012,
Abstract: This study underscores the need to recognise accountability as a dynamic two-way process that rests on recognising the role of the same individual/group as an "accounter" at one level and an "accountee" at another. Using this argument, elements of an effective accountability process have been identified which primarily highlight the fact that actors in an accountability relationship are also accountable for the accountability process itself. This study argues that accountability literature, because of increasing conceptual fuzziness, is at a crossroad where lack of urgency in developing a robust framework is likely to make accountability ineffectual. Relevant literature on accountability is reviewed and the need for a framework is identified. Using stakeholders’ theory as a starting point and existing literature as a guide, disparate findings are collated to present elements of a robust accountability process which can serve as the foundation of a dynamic, realistic and cohesive accountability framework. An analysis of accountability elements indicate that a vigorous accountability process should allow optimum freedom of choice to the accountee, as excessive controls not only stifle initiatives but tend to erode accountability of the accountee. The study identifies the need for role clarity and thus clear description of expectations, consequences and choices by accounters. Since an accountee’s personal moral values have a profound affect on how expectations and consequences are perceived and how accountability sources and their respective interests are optimised to their advantage, an accounter also bear some responsibility for situational shortcomings of an accountee. The study identifies distinct accountability facilitators that play an important role in improving an accountability mechanism. The focus in this study on mediators as non-stakeholders not only redefines the role of auditors but also cuts across traditional debates by allowing for the possibility of involving more qualified non-stakeholders as mediators to add credibility to the accountability process. The study distinguishes accountability medium from accountability mediators and highlights the need for refinement and expansion in accountability mediums. It identifies transparency as an objective and uniform measure of a result driven accountability process.
Music education and musicians: Expectations, course and outcomes  [PDF]
Bogunovi? Blanka,Dubljevi? Jelena,Buden Nina
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/zipi1202402b
Abstract: Considering the long-term talent development, from the moment of its recognition to the moment when an adult is confronted with the necessity of integration in the professional music and life streams, we wonder whether education satisfies the needs of talents and provides, in the long run, the necessary knowledge and skills. The aim of this research was to investigate: (1) the initial motivation for learning music and expectations from music education; (2) the course of development of young musicians (the degree of self-actualisation, developmental perspectives, evaluation of music education) and (3) outcomes of music education and development of the professional career. The sample (N=487) consisted of five subsamples: music kindergarten pupils, students of primary music schools, students of secondary music schools, university students of music and teachers at music schools and universities. The paper analyses psychological, educational and professional aspects of education of musically gifted pupils and students, as well as music teachers in five successive age groups. The results indicate that with an increase in age there is a considerable increase in the variety and scope of expectations and a higher aspiration towards personal, educational and professional lifelong improvement, while, at the same time, there is a considerable decrease in the level of fulfilment of expectations and the level of assessment of self-actualisation. This is indicative of a continuously present feeling of “hidden underachievement” in the group of (relatively) successful young musicians and professionals. Analysis of respondents’ answers points out to the existence of still traditional system of music education, which lacks flexibility and innovation and fails to provide a sufficient level of transferable knowledge and skills. The findings point out to a whole cluster of controversies demanding further reconsideration and (re)designing of the curriculum of (high) music education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija va nih dru tvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije i br. 179034: Od inicijative, saradnje i stvarala tva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u dru tvu]
Determination of Consumer Expectations by Illustration of Spirulina as Marketing of Biotechnological Products
O. Akpolat
Trends in Agricultural Economics , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present study is to examine the knowledge, behaviors and expectations of the consumers about Spirulina as a biotechnological product. As known biotechnological products are in a wide range spectrum from food to health or from energy to environment etc. and the behaviors of the consumers used these types of products and their expectations about them have also big differences in the market. In the concept of determining or guessing of the behaviors and the expectations of the consumers previously, a questionnaire related the consumption of Spirulina conducted for a target group in Izmir in Turkey was evaluated statistically used SPSS11.5 software and the knowledge, behaviors and expectations of the consumers was determined by limitations of the study.
Serbian labor market with special emphasis on defining marketing strategy in tourism
Stojanka Dakic,Ksenija Fabian
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2010,
Abstract: In addition to clear negative impact of the global economic crisis, which we witness, the labor market in Serbia has been faced with the transition problems accumulated through many years. Tourism and hospitality are among the those activities which have capacity to induce the entire system of other complementary activities that contribute to coping with the problem of high unemployment. The paper discusses role of developing marketing strategies in tourism sector of Serbia. As the author, it is important for the country to define a clear marketing strategy that includes adequate directing capabilities and resources in this industry in order to response to changes in the environment.
Patients’ Expectations in a Geriatric Rehabilitation Ward: Matching with Actual Outcomes  [PDF]
Mauro Colombo, Carla Facchini, Achim Rusu, Eleonora Marelli, Giuseppe Procino, Rosella Capuano, Cristina Miramonti, Antonio Guaita
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.911117
Abstract: Aim: Person-centered care is a core issue in rehabilitation; the study aims at: 1) enquiring the outcome expectations of patients in a geriatric rehabilitation ward; 2) matching outcome expectations with actual outcomes. Methods: Expectations of 186 patients [79.4 (8.7) years, 70% females] analyzed through a questionnaire. 80.6% of patients were discharged home; functional recovery = 17.7 (22) points in Barthel Index total score, and 5 (4.2) points in Barthel Index walking subscore; also conditions with nursing needs improved significantly. Results: Patients’ expectations were coded as: functional (31.4%), overall (29.6%), and clinical improvement (21.5%), discharge home (7%); no answers or explicit lack of expectations (7.5%). Walking ability recovery differed according to outcome expectations. Highest improvements were achieved by patients wishing clinical improvement, followed by those expecting functional or overall improvement (5 points) [p = 0.009 (Welch)/p = 0.041 (Brown- Forsythe)]; worst improvement in walking ability (2.8 points) were got by patients faulting or declaring explicit failure of expectations. Conditions with nursing needs improved most in those expecting clinical improvements [p = 0.029 (Brown-Forsythe)], and less in case of expectation default. No further matching was found. Conclusions: Improvement in actual outcomes matched expected improvements in two circumstances: recovery in walking ability and in conditions with nursing needs. The high yield of different favorable outcomes may have masked the statistical significance for correspondence between actual and expected results. Special attention is worthy towards patients short of expectations, as their actual outcomes result poorer.
Reviewed by R.Ayhan YILMAZ
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2011,
Abstract: Topics of the book is cover on building corporate identity for educational institutions, cultural and regional issues in educational product development, Defining the role of online education in today‘s world, individualization of open educational services, integrated marketing communications, measuring the impact of educational promotions, new customers and new demands, open and Distance education, reputation issues in online education and sustainable communication before, during and after enrollment
Constantinescu-Dobra Anca
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: With a constant yearly growth of more than 20% over the last five years and adding up to10% of the GDP, the Romanian Information Technology (IT) sector has an important potential for development. Emphasizing on websites marketing in this sector could enhance more profitability. Even though this tool is considered to be much depersonalized, the users like getting a sense of the company behind the website. Having a wide range of information facilitates this understanding. In a very competitive environment, the IT managers have to realize that the overall site is what represents their organization to users. Prospectors look at product pages and read the site content when they are evaluating an organization as a possible vendor, business partner, employer, investment opportunity. Therefore, websites marketing is one of aspects that need to be constantly reevaluated in an ever-changing word of communication. Given this facts, the present study identifies the extent to which the most valuable IT Romanian companies practice webpagea€ s marketing. Specifically, we examine the content, in-time communication tools, navigability and style of the websites in correlation with their outcome and size. Moreover, the paper analyzes the differences between websites characteristics of Romanian IT SMEs and large companies from top 100, according to their turnover. The specific objectives in order to investigate the websites marketing of Romanian IT companies are: -To evaluate the websites marketing policies of the software developer, hardware and IT distributors; -To analyze in depth the Romanian IT companies websites performance in correlation with their profit, turnover and number of employees; -To assess the differences between websites policy of SMEs and large companies from Romanian IT industry; This study is exploratory and consists in a qualitative assessment of websites from top100 software, hardware and IT distributor companies. The sample consists of 93 functional websites. The corporate website of each company was analyzed and subsequently codified on 97 variables clustered in four dimensions: content, handling, interactivity and layout. The results outline the fact that firms engage in websites marketing activities to a relatively high extent. There is a strong correlation between websites content and companiesa€ turnover, profits and number of employees. Moreover, a positive correlation was revealed between interactivity and turnover. The research outcomes reflect high disparity between Internet marketing policy of software, hardware and distributors.
The Accountability Bind  [cached]
Katrina Bulkley
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2001,
Abstract: Charter schools involve a trading of autonomy for accountability. This accountability comes through two forces—markets through the choices of parents and students, and accountability to government through the writing of contracts that must be renewed for schools to continue to operate. Charter schools are supposed to be more accountable for educational performance than traditional public schools because authorizers have the ability to revoke charter contracts. Here, I focus on one central component of accountability to government: performance accountability or accountability for educational outcomes to charter school authorizers through the revocation or non-renewal of charter contracts. In this paper, I suggest that contract-based accountability for educational performance in charter schools may not be working as proponents argued it would. This article explores some explanations for why there are very few examples of charter schools that have been closed primarily because of failure to demonstrate educational performance or improvement. Future work will need to test if these challenges for authorizers hold in a variety of contexts. The conclusion examines the implications of these findings for the future of charter school accountability.
Systematic review: Do patient expectations influence treatment outcomes in total knee and total hip arthroplasty?
Haanstra Tsjitske M,van den Berg Tobias,Ostelo Raymond W,Poolman Rudolf W
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-152
Abstract: Objective This systematic review aims to summarise all the available evidence related to the association between pre-operative patient expectations (outcome expectations, process expectations and self efficacy expectations) and 5 different treatment outcomes (overall improvement, pain, function, stiffness and satisfaction) in patients with total knee or total hip arthroplasty at three different follow-op periods (>6 weeks; >6 weeks- ≤6 months; >6 months). Methods English and Dutch language articles were identified through PubMed, EMBASE.com, PsycINFO, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library from inception to September 2012. Articles assessing the association between pre-operative patient expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA/THA in either adjusted or unadjusted analysis were included. Two reviewers, working independently, determined eligibility, rated methodological quality and extracted data on study design, population, expectation measurements, outcome measurements and strength of the associations. Methodological quality was rated by the same reviewers on a 19 item scale. The scores on the quality assessment were taken into account when drawing final conclusions. Results The search strategy generated 2252 unique references, 18 articles met inclusion criteria. Scores on the methodological quality assessment ranged between 6% and 79%. Great variety was seen in definitions and measurement methods of expectations. No significant associations were found between patient expectations and overall improvement, satisfaction and stiffness. Both significant positive and non-significant associations were found for the association between expectations and pain and function. Conclusions There was no consistency in the association between patients’ pre-operative expectations and treatment outcomes for TKA and THA indentified in this systematic review. There exists a need for a sound theoretical framework underlying the construct of ‘patient expectations’ and consistent use of valid measurement instruments to measure that construct in order to facilitate future research synthesis.
Perceptions of the impact of accountability on the role of principals.  [cached]
James E. Lyons,Bob Algozzine
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2006,
Abstract: Calls for accountability in America's schools have created increased responsibilities for educational leaders. In this article, we describe and discuss a study of elementary, middle, and high school principals' perceptions of the state-wide educational accountability program in North Carolina. The respondents indicated that the state's accountability program has had its greatest impact on how they monitored student achievement, aligned the curriculum to the testing program, provided student remedial or tutorial opportunities, assigned teachers to grades levels or subjects, and protected instructional time. Views of some components, such as measures of school effectiveness, school safety standards, expectations and promotion standards for students, and financial bonuses received by staff members in schools that meet expected achievement standards, were viewed favorably. In contrast, the No Child Left Behind Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirement (incorporated into the state's accountability program), testing requirements for Limited English Proficiency students and special education students, the sanctions applied to schools that do not meet expected growth, and the school status designation labels that are applied to schools based upon student achievement were perceived more negatively. The predictable and unpredictable outcomes of a mandated accountability program on the perceptions (and behavior) of school principals create important considerations which are discussed for policy-makers and other professionals dealing with standards-based reform.
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