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Characteristics and Destinations of Indigenous Chickens Marketed in Guera Region, East-Central Chad  [PDF]
Mopate Logtene Youssouf,Ndjimtoloum Nadjissara,El Hadji Fallou Gueye
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess zooeconomic parameters like age, weight, price and destinations of produced chickens that are sold on three main markets of Guera, east-central Chad. Data were collected over six months on the market places of Mongo and Mangalme and four months on the market place of Bitkine. The transversal and retrospective survey was coupled with direct observations and weightings. For 1549 marketed chickens, the males made up 57% and the females 43%. The average values per chicken were found to be 16.29.9 months for age, 1082.4371.2 g for weight and 1607.8FCFA 414.6 for price. Average age and weight of sold chickens were significantly higher (p<0.001) on Mangalme market, with an average price significantly lower (p<0.001). On the whole, 52% of surveyed chickens were intended for sale in the capital NDjamena, 39% in Mongo city, 7% in Bitkine and 2% in Mangalme. According to the final destinations declared by buyers, average age and weight of the sold chickens to be consumed in Bitkine were significantly lower (p<0.001) but with an average price significantly higher (p<0.001). The Mangalme sellers sold mainly old chickens in order to earn more money. The pressure exerted by NDjamena traders to purchase chickens in Bitkine increases prices.
Response of Red Sokoto and Sahelian Goats to Trickle Haemonchus contortus Infection  [PDF]
H.J. Makun,J.O. Ajanusi,C.A.M. Lakpini,O.W. Ehoche
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the relative resistance of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats to experimental infection with infective larva (L3) of Haemonchus contortus. At the age of about 7-9 months weaned goats were transferred to individual feeding pens and fed concentrate at 08:00 h and given Digitaria smutsii hay ad libitum. Fifteen goats of each breed were divided into 3 groups of five animals each. Goats were either given 0 L3 kg-1 (treatment 1), 75 L3 kg-1 (treatment 2) or 100 L3 kg-1 (treatment 3), three times weekly for 3 weeks. The faecal egg count expressed in Eggs per Gram (EPG) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the Sahelian (1477±153.4) than the Red Sokoto (607±147.5). The PCV didn`t show any significant difference between breed however the difference between treatment was significant at p < 0.05. The average daily gain was higher for the Red Sokoto (11.2 g day-1) than the Sahelian (5.6 g day-1) even though the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The mean total protein was statistically different between breeds. The Red Sokoto had higher (p < 0.05) than the Sahelian (64.6 ± 1.81 vs 57.6 ± 1.86). The mean albumin and globulin concentration did not differ significantly between breed. It was concluded that the Red Sokoto were relatively more resistant to Haemonchus contortus on the basis of faecal egg count, weight gains, changes in the PCV and total serum protein concentration.
Growth Rates and Milk Production Potential of Sahelian and Red Sokoto Breeds of Goats in Northern Guinea Savannah  [PDF]
H.J. Makun,J.O. Ajanusi,O.W. Ehoche,C.A.M. Lakpini
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The milk production potentials and growth rates of Red Sokoto and Sahelian goats fed basal diets of maize stover and Digitaria smutsii (wolly finger grass) supplemented with concentrate was investigated in two separate trials. In experiment 1, ten multi-parous does were allocated to intensive management following kidding. Does were hand-milked twice weekly and the milk production recorded. Body weight changes of dam and kid, milk fat, milk solid were determined weekly over 12 weeks period. The average birth weight of the Sahelian (2.2 ± 0.23 kg) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the Red Sokoto kids (1.0± 0.17). At weaning age, the average kid weight of the Sahelian (5.6 ± 0.42 kg) was significantly higher than the Red Sokoto (3.9 ± 0.44 kg). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in daily milk yield and total lactation between the two breeds. The total solids and milk fat of 16.4 ± 0.39 and 3.7 ± 0.13% were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the Red Sokoto than the Sahelian (15.1 ± 0.39 and 3.2 ± 0.13%). The second trial was to evaluate the comparative growth of the Sahelian and Red Sokoto breeds of goats. Animals were group-fed based on sex and fed Digitaria smutsii hay supplemented with concentrate. The growth trial lasted for 150 days with a 14 day digestibility trial. The Average Daily Gain (ADG) were significantly (p<0.05) different for breed, as well as sex. The Red Sokoto (66.9 ±1.59) kids had higher ADG than the Sahelian (46.6 ±1.59). Similarly the males of the Red Sokoto (61.9 ±1.59) had higher ADG than the Sahelian males (46.7 ±0.59) and the females of both breed. The experiments demonstrated a linear increase in weight gains of Red Sokoto over the Sahelian and a slightly higher milk yield obtained from the Sahelian providing the basis to conclude that the Sahelian goat can adapted and fit into the production systems of Sudan Savannah rural farmers.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits in Nigeria Sahelian Goats
Mike O. Otuma,Isaac I. Osakwe
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Data on 1010 Nigeria sahelian goat kids accumulated for nine years in the Small Ruminant and Multiplication Research Unit, Department of Animal Production, Ebonyi State University , Nigeria, were analyzed for the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits. The heritability, phenotypic and genotypic, correlations were evaluated for birth, 3, 12 and 18 months live weights. The year of rearing, sex and parity had significant effects except birth type (p<0.05) in all the different periods of growth from birth until 18 months of age except birth type which was neutralized at 18 months of age. Sex effects continued at 18 months with males displaying superiority (p<0.05) over the females. Live weights traits had high heritability and the correlation was positive and high. This further suggests that selection can be adopted as a technique for improving weaning, yearling and maturity weight by selection for heavier kids from weaning age.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits in Nigeria Sahelian Goats
M.O. Otuma,I.I. Osakwe
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Data on 1010 Nigeria sahelian goat kids accumulated for nine years in the Small Ruminant and Multiplication Research Unit, Department of Animal Production, Ebonyi State University , Nigeria, were analyzed for the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits. The heritability, phenotypic and genotypic, correlations were evaluated for birth, 3, 12 and 18 months live weights. The year of rearing, sex and parity had significant effects except birth type (p<0.05) in all the different periods of growth from birth until 18 months of age except birth type which was neutralized at 18 months of age. Sex effects continued at 18 months with males displaying superiority (p<0. 05) over the females. Live weights traits had high heritability and the correlation was positive and high. This study further suggests that selection can be adopted as a technique for improving weaning, yearling and maturity weight by selection for heavier kids from weaning age.
Diversity and Origin of Indigenous Village Chickens (Gallus gallus) from Chad, Central Africa  [PDF]
Khadidja Hassaballah, Vounparet Zeuh, Raman A. Lawal, Olivier Hanotte, Mbacké Sembene
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.69062
Abstract: In this study we assess the maternal genetic diversity and origin of indigenous village chickens from Chad complementing previous phenotypic and biometric measurements studies. We analysed a 387 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 181 village chickens from three populations of western Chad (Lake Chad/Hadjer Lamis), central Chad (Guera) and south-west Chad (Pala) and at different poultry markets in N'Djamena. Twenty-five polymorphic sites and 20 haplotypes are identified. Phylogenetic and network analyses group all chicken into a single mtDNA haplogroup D. Comparison with reference sequences shows that this haplogroup is the commonest one observed in chicken and it supports the Indian subcontinent as the maternal center of origin for the village chicken in Chad. Little genetic variation was found within and between populations which is in agreement with a recent and a maternal founding effect for the chicken in the country.
Relationship Between Some Polymorphic Parameters and Performances in Damascus Goats  [PDF]
O. Guney,O. Ozuyanik,O. Torun,M. Gorgulu
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the types of haemoglobin and transferrin found in Damascus goats and demonstrate their relationship with different performance traits. The Hb B allele was observed in the Damascus goats studied. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed. We observed nine genotypes, namely Tf AA, AC, AD, BB, BC, BD, CC, CD, DD; C and D were the two most commonly occuring alleles at the locus and A was the rare -globin variant. The frequencies of Tf C and D were higher than those of the other transferrin genotypes. There was no significant effect of transferrin genotype on performance (p>0.05).
PCR-SSCP analysis of GH gene in Sarda goats: a high variability and its preliminary effects on dairy performances  [cached]
Maria Luisa Dettori,Angela Maria Rocchigiani,Michele Pazzola,Vincenzo Carcangiu
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.75
Abstract: The growth hormone (GH) gene can be utilized as a major gene because in various domestic livestock its polymorphisms have been associated to milk traits. The aim of this research was to investigate single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in the exon 3 of gGH (goat GH) gene and to evaluate the possible association with milk traits in Sarda goat breed. Forty-four primiparous lactating goats were randomly chosen, and the productive parameters (milk yield, fat, protein, and lactose percentage) of three consecutive lactations were monitored. The exon 3 of the gGH gene was PCR amplified and the resulting products were analysed by SSCP. Six conformational patterns were detected. The sequencing of SSCP patterns revealed the occurrence of six nucleotide changes, two of which determined amino acid changes in the deduced protein sequence. A preliminary comparative analysis of the productive traits related to three lactations with the genomic profiles derived from the SSCP analysis was performed with the ANOVA statistical method. SSCP polymorphic patterns in exon 3 were associated (P<0.01) with milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and with lactose content (P<0.05). These findings may be used for marker assisted selection in Sarda goat, in order to improve dairy production, preserving genetic diversity of the population.
Plants Foraged by Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille in Southern Chad
Delphine Dongock Nguemo, Pierre Marie Mapongmetsem, Mahamat Abdoulaye
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102831
Abstract:
Melliferous plants of Chad are less known despite their diversity. The main objective of this study was to better assess the diversity of these plants. This work was carried out in the rainy of 2014 in the region of Guera. Direct observations of bees foraging during seasonal field trips were carried competed by interview of a total of 300 volunteers’ beekeepers using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 52 melliferous plants distributed into 16 botanical families were identified. The most represented family in term of number of species was Mimosaceae (37.25%) and the least was Tiliaceae (01.96%). The biological distribution of the beeplants species revealed that trees (54.90%) were the abundant type. The flower colour of melliferous plants was variable, with the white color (23.52%) being dominant. The spontaneous species (81.00%) were highly more frequent compared to the cultivated beeplants. Polliniferous plants (60.0%) were more represented as compared to nectariferous plants (40%).
Effects of Breed, Sex and Source Within Breed on the Blood Bilirubin, Cholesterol and Glucose Concentrations of Nigerian Goats  [PDF]
J.C. Okonkwo,I.S. Omeje,I.F. Okonkwo,I.C.E. Umeghalu
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Effects of breed, sex and source within breed on the blood bilirubin, cholesterol and glucose concentrations of the Nigerian goats were studied using eighty-one yearly goats; comprising equal numbers of the Sahelian Goat (SG), Red Sokoto Goat (RSG) and West African Dwarf goat (WADG) breeds. The studies indicate that there were no significant breed differences in total serum bilirubin concentrations and the range of 0.63-0.65 mg/100 ml was observed. However, the conjugated (direct) bilirubin is generally lower in the male goats than in the female goats, while the unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin is higher in the male goats than in their female counterparts. Source within each breed exhibited no pronounced effects on the Sahelian goats; but had effects on the RSG and WADG breeds. The study further revealed that the Sahelian goat breed has the highest concentration of serum glucose and the lowest level of serum cholesterol; the reverse is the case for the West African Dwarf goats, while the Red Sokoto goats recorded moderate concentrations of both cholesterol and glucose in the serum. The serum cholesterol level in goat is inversely proportional to the glucose concentration.
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