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Association of gender and schizophrenia subtype with age at disease onset in a cohort from rural Turkey
Belli,Hasan; Ural,Cenk; Solmaz,Mustafa; Akbudak,Mahir; Namli,Mustafa; Bayik,Yilmaz;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632012000100005
Abstract: background and objectives: this study was designed to investigate the association of the gender and subtype diagnosis with the onset age of the disease, marriage, reproductive rates in the schizophrenic inpatients. methods: total of 463 patients (329 males and 134 females) hospitalized with the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to dsm-iv criteria and who were between 15-65 years of age were included in the study. we evaluated the age, gender, marital status, number of children, onset of the disease and subtype of schizophrenia. results: mean of onset of the disease score was higher statistically in the females (27.6 ± 4.3) than the males (23.7 ± 3.9) (p < 0.05) in our study. the paranoid subtype was the commonest, while women were more likely to be married than men, men had more children than women; and the paranoid subtype were more likely to be married than the other groups. conclusions: onset age of schizophrenia was four years higher in the women than in men and that the rates of the schizophrenia subtypes were consistent with those detected in the other studies demonstrates that these rates were determined by neurobiological mechanisms rather than socio-cultural factors.
Association of gender and schizophrenia subtype with age at disease onset in a cohort from rural Turkey  [cached]
Hasan Belli,Cenk Ural,Mustafa Solmaz,Mahir Akbudak
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the association of the gender and subtype diagnosis with the onset age of the disease, marriage, reproductive rates in the schizophrenic inpatients. Methods: Total of 463 patients (329 males and 134 females) hospitalized with the diagnosis of schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria and who were between 15-65 years of age were included in the study. We evaluated the age, gender, marital status, number of children, onset of the disease and subtype of schizophrenia. Results: Mean of onset of the disease score was higher statistically in the females (27.6 ± 4.3) than the males (23.7 ± 3.9) (p < 0.05) in our study. The paranoid subtype was the commonest, while women were more likely to be married than men, men had more children than women; and the paranoid subtype were more likely to be married than the other groups. Conclusions: Onset age of schizophrenia was four years higher in the women than in men and that the rates of the schizophrenia subtypes were consistent with those detected in the other studies demonstrates that these rates were determined by neurobiological mechanisms rather than socio-cultural factors.
Addressing the Younger Age at Onset in Breast Cancer Patients in Asia: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Fifty Years of Quality Data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer  [PDF]
Seyed Houssein Mousavi-Jarrrahi,Amir Kasaeian,Kamyar Mansori,Mehdi Ranjbaran,Mahmoud Khodadost,Alireza Mosavi-Jarrahi
ISRN Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/429862
Abstract: Introduction. There is an established fact that Asian breast cancer patients are, on average, younger than their European counterparts. This study aimed to utilize the data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents I through XIII (published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer) to examine what contributes to the younger age at onset in the Asian population. Material and Methods. Data (number of breast cancer cases and corresponding population figures) for 29 registries in Europe and 9 registries in Asia for the period of 1953–2002 was accessioned and pooled to form two distinct populations, Asia and Europe. The age specific rates were defined and analyzed cross-sectionally (period wise) and longitudinally (cohort wise). The magnitude and the pattern of age specific rates were analyzed using the age-period-cohort analysis. The constrained generalized linear model with a priority assumption of cohort effect as contributing factor to changing rates was used to analyze the data. Result. During the last 50 years, the rate of breast cancer increased for both populations with an estimated annual percent change of 1.03% (with 95% CI of 1.029, 1.031) for Asia and 1.016% (95% CI of 1.015, 1.017) for Europe. There were stronger cohort effects in the magnitude of rates among the Asian population compared to the European population. The cohort effects, expressed as the rate ratio with cohort born in 1970 as reference, ranged from 0.06 (95% CI 0.05, 0.08) to 0.94 (95% CI 0.93, 0.96) for Asians and 0.35 (95% CI 0.33, 0.36) to 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.04) for Europeans. The estimated longitudinal age specific rates (adjusted for cohort and period effects) showed similar patterns between the two populations. Conclusion. It was concluded that a strong cohort effect contributes to the younger age at onset among Asian breast cancer patients. 1. Introduction Breast cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world. In 2008, close to 1.4 million cases were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide [1]. The incidence varies among different populations with high rates seen in developed countries compared to developing countries [2, 3]. In general, breast cancer rates are highest in white European and lowest in east Asian populations [1, 4, 5]. The estimated incidence rate for women living in the south-east Asia region of World Health Organization’ is 26.1 per 100000 population and this figure is 89.7 for women living in Western Europe [1]. The established risk factors of breast cancer are, mainly, early age at menarche, late age at menopause,
Age of onset of leprosy  [cached]
Nigam Pramod,Sehgal Uttera,Ramesh V,Misra R
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1990,
Abstract: The age of onset of leprosy was studied in 1012 consecutive patients. Although no age was exempt, majority of the patients had onset of their disease during the 10-29 years of age. There was no significant difference in the mean age pf onset of leprosy among males and females. The paucibacillary group had significantly lower age of onset as compared to multibacillary cases. The comparison of other studies on age of onset from India and elsewhere showed that this varies in different regions within the country, on different times at the same place, as well as from country to country.
Asymptotic behavior of the unconditional NPMLE of the length-biased survivor function from right censored prevalent cohort data  [PDF]
Masoud Asgharian,David B. Wolfson
Mathematics , 2006, DOI: 10.1214/009053605000000372
Abstract: Right censored survival data collected on a cohort of prevalent cases with constant incidence are length-biased, and may be used to estimate the length-biased (i.e., prevalent-case) survival function. When the incidence rate is constant, so-called stationarity of the incidence, it is more efficient to use this structure for unconditional statistical inference than to carry out an analysis by conditioning on the observed truncation times. It is well known that, due to the informative censoring for prevalent cohort data, the Kaplan--Meier estimator is not the unconditional NPMLE of the length-biased survival function and the asymptotic properties of the NPMLE do not follow from any known result. We present here a detailed derivation of the asymptotic properties of the NPMLE of the length-biased survival function from right censored prevalent cohort survival data with follow-up. In particular, we show that the NPMLE is uniformly strongly consistent, converges weakly to a Gaussian process, and is asymptotically efficient. One important spin-off from these results is that they yield the asymptotic properties of the NPMLE of the incident-case survival function [see Asgharian, M'Lan and Wolfson J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 97 (2002) 201--209], which is often of prime interest in a prevalent cohort study. Our results generalize those given by Vardi and Zhang [Ann. Statist. 20 (1992) 1022--1039] under multiplicative censoring, which we show arises as a degenerate case in a prevalent cohort setting.
CHEK2 1100delC is prevalent in Swedish early onset familial breast cancer
Sara Margolin, Hans Eiberg, Annika Lindblom, Marie Bisgaard
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-163
Abstract: We analyzed the prevalence of CHEK2 1100delC in 763 breast cancer patients with a defined family history and 760 controls from the Stockholm region. The breast cancer patients originated from; a population-based cohort (n = 452) and from a familial cancer clinic (n = 311), the detailed family history was known in both groups.The variant was found in 2.9% of the familial cases from the population-based cohort and in 1.9% from the familial cancer clinic. In total 2.2% of the patients with a family history of breast cancer carried the variant compared to 0.7% of the controls (p = 0.03). There was no increased prevalence in sporadic patients (0.3%). The variant was most frequent in young familial patients (5.1% of cases ≤45 years, p = 0.003). The mean age at diagnosis of variant carriers was 12 years lower than in non-carriers (p = 0.001).In conclusion, CHEK2 1100delC exists in the Swedish population. The prevalence is increased in familial breast cancer and the variant seems to influence age at onset.Apart from gender, family history is the most important risk factor for breast cancer. Mutations in the known high-risk genes BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, ATM and PTEN account for less than 25% of the familial risk for breast cancer while the remainder are still genetically unexplained despite large efforts in research [1]. A polygenic model with variations in several loci, each contributing a modest independent risk has been shown to best explain the residual non BRCA1/2 aggregation of breast cancer, and the effect of low penetrant genes may also at least partly explain sporadic breast cancer [2,3]. However, there are few conclusive results on variants in candidate low-penetrant genes even though a large number of case-control studies, most relatively small in sample size, have been performed [4]. Association studies on variants conferring modest risks require large sample sizes; the study size is however also influenced by the variant frequency. In general unselected breast cancer
Chronic growth faltering amongst a birth cohort of Indian children begins prior to weaning and is highly prevalent at three years of age
Andrea M Rehman, Beryl P Gladstone, Valsan P Verghese, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Shabbar Jaffar, Gagandeep Kang
Nutrition Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-44
Abstract: 452 children born between March 2002 and August 2003 were followed until their third birthday in three neighbouring slums in Vellore, South India. Field workers visited homes to collect details of morbidity twice a week. Height and weight were measured monthly from one month of age in a study-run clinic. For analysis, standardised z-scores were generated using the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Risk factors for stunting at three years of age were analysed in logistic regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the effect of missing values.At age three years, of 186 boys and 187 girls still under follow-up, 109 (66%, 95% Confidence interval 58-73%) boys and 93 (56%, 95% CI 49-64%) girls were stunted, 14 (8%, 95% CI 4-13%) boys and 12 (7%, 95% CI 3-11%) girls were wasted (low weight-for-height) and 72 (43%, 95% CI 36-51) boys and 66 (39%, 95% CI 31-47%) girls were underweight (low weight-for-age). In total 224/331 (68%) children at three years had at least one growth deficiency (were stunted and/or underweight and/or wasted); even as early as one month of age 186/377 (49%) children had at least one growth deficiency. Factors associated with stunting at three years were birth weight less than 2.5 kg (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.70) 'beedi-making' (manual production of cigarettes for a daily wage) in the household (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.86), maternal height less than 150 cm (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.12-3.62), being stunted, wasted or underweight at six months of age (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.93) and having at least one older sibling (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.51).A high proportion of urban slum dwelling children had poor growth throughout the first three years of life. Interventions are needed urgently during pregnancy, early breastfeeding and weaning in this population.In developing countries, poor growth of children under five is a major public health problem. Children with poor growth have high rates of mortality and morbidity [1,2] and can suffer motor and
Influence of age at onset on social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia
Ochoa,S.; Usall,J.; Villalta-Gil,V.; Vilaplana,M.; Márquez,M.; Valdelomar,M.; Haro,J.M.; ,;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2006, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632006000300003
Abstract: background and objectives: there are different factors that have been found to predict disability in schizophrenia. the aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of age at onset on social functioning in schizophrenia in a large sample of schizophrenic outpatients controlling for gender. methods: two hundred and thirty-one subjects with schizophrenia (dsm-iv criteria) were randomly selected from a register that included all patients under treatment in five mental health care centers (mhcc) in spain. patients were evaluated with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, and the spanish version of the living skills profile (lsp). pearson's analyses were performed between age at onset and lsp, and an anova analysis to compare three groups of age at onset (early, middle and late). gender was introduced as a covariable. results: mean age at onset of the total sample was 23 (sd 7.35), with women having a later age at onset than men (women 24.6 (sd 9.1) ; men 22.2 (sd 5.9) (p<0.05)). the relation between age at onset and social functioning was only significant in the not interpersonal social behavior subscale (p<0.01). early age at onset was positively related to social contact-communication (p<0.05), not interpersonal social behavior (p<0.05) and total lsp score (p<0.05). when including gender as a covariable, a significant relationship between age at onset and social functioning was found in most of the lsp subscales. conclusions: early onset of illness negatively influences psychosocial functioning, especially in the areas of communication, not interpersonal social behaviour and self-care. female gender positively influences most aspects of social functioning.
Influence of age at onset on social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia  [cached]
S. Ochoa,J. Usall,V. Villalta-Gil,M. Vilaplana
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: There are different factors that have been found to predict disability in schizophrenia. The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of age at onset on social functioning in schizophrenia in a large sample of schizophrenic outpatients controlling for gender. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-one subjects with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) were randomly selected from a register that included all patients under treatment in five mental health care centers (MHCC) in Spain. Patients were evaluated with a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, and the Spanish version of the Living Skills Profile (LSP). Pearson's analyses were performed between age at onset and LSP, and an ANOVA analysis to compare three groups of age at onset (early, middle and late). Gender was introduced as a covariable. Results: Mean age at onset of the total sample was 23 (sd 7.35), with women having a later age at onset than men (women 24.6 (sd 9.1) ; men 22.2 (sd 5.9) (p<0.05)). The relation between age at onset and social functioning was only significant in the not interpersonal social behavior subscale (p<0.01). Early age at onset was positively related to social contact-communication (p<0.05), not interpersonal social behavior (p<0.05) and total LSP score (p<0.05). When including gender as a covariable, a significant relationship between age at onset and social functioning was found in most of the LSP subscales. Conclusions: Early onset of illness negatively influences psychosocial functioning, especially in the areas of communication, not interpersonal social behaviour and self-care. Female gender positively influences most aspects of social functioning.
How Does Age at Onset Influence the Outcome of Autoimmune Diseases?  [PDF]
Manuel J. Amador-Patarroyo,Alberto Rodriguez-Rodriguez,Gladis Montoya-Ortiz
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/251730
Abstract: The age at onset refers to the time period at which an individual experiences the first symptoms of a disease. In autoimmune diseases (ADs), these symptoms can be subtle but are very relevant for diagnosis. They can appear during childhood, adulthood or late in life and may vary depending on the age at onset. Variables like mortality and morbidity and the role of genes will be reviewed with a focus on the major autoimmune disorders, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), Sj?gren's syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD). Early age at onset is a worst prognostic factor for some ADs (i.e., SLE and T1D), while for others it does not have a significant influence on the course of disease (i.e., SS) or no unanimous consensus exists (i.e., RA and MS). 1. Introduction Autoimmune diseases (ADs) affect approximately 5% of the world population [1, 2]. The age at onset varies widely depending on the disease. For example, sixty-five percent of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) start manifesting their symptoms between ages 16 and 55 [3]. Another 20 percent manifest them before age 16 and the remaining 15 percent after age 55 [4]. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can begin at any age but has its peak between ages 30 and 55 [5]. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a term used to describe the autoimmune, inflammatory joint condition that develops in children. Another prevalent AD is Sj?gren’s syndrome (SS) which is considered to be more prevalent in women between ages 45 and 50 [6]. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) usually appears between ages 20 and 40, and it is very rare during adolescence [7]. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is considered a childhood and adolescent disease with two peaks of onset, one between ages 5 and 9 and a second between ages 10 and 14 [8]. On the other hand, an adult onset would be considered to be in a range of 25–61 years old [9]. Finally, autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD) is thought to be a disease that can appear in childhood but is more prevalent during adulthood [10]. Herein, we analytically reviewed the effect of age at onset on the most prevalent ADs, their clinical differences (Table 1), and their genetic and immunologic relationships (Table 2). Table 1: Clinical differences between early and adult onset. Table 2: Genetic and immunological factors related to age at onset. 2. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE is a chronic AD that affects individuals of every age. It is more common in adults, but it may be diagnosed during childhood as well [11].
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