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Immature Embryo Rescue and in Vitro Development Evaluation of Intraspecific Hybrids from Brazilian Seedless Grapevine “Superior × Thompson” Clones  [PDF]
Eiryanne Fonseca de Menezes, Eliene Matos e Silva, Adriana Mayumi Yano-Melo, Patrícia Coelho de Souza Le?o, Natoniel Franklin de Melo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.513209
Abstract:

The fruit production for export is an economically significant activity in the Valley of S?o Francisco River, especially in the irrigated lands of Petrolina-PE/Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The development of new genetic material most suitable to the tropical climate and the demands of the consumer market have led to the selection of new seedless grapes cultivars. In this case, the use of the embryo rescue technique has produced satisfactory results for obtaining such materials, especially in the semiarid region. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro development of intraspecific hybrids of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), derived from the rescue of immature embryos resultant from the crossing of “Superior Seedless” and “Thompson Seedless” Brazilian clones. To establish and develop the cultivation, the culture media was supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 g/L myo-inositol, 0.002 g/L glycine, 0.1 mg/L indoleacetic acid (IAA), 6.5 g/L of agar, adjusted pH to 5.7. The experiment was evaluated after 90 days. The variables measured were: number of nodes, number of leaves, plant height (cm), number of roots and length (cm) of the root system and internodes. The period of 60 days of in vitro culture of ovules resulted in the highest values of embryos (about 50%), as well as better characterized developmental stages with higher germination (47.3%). The three types of hybrid grapes evaluated in micropropagation showed very similar values of the measured parameters, even having originated from embryos of different developmental stages.

An Investigation into New Seedless Grapevine Genotype Production via Using Controlled Crosses  [cached]
J. Erfani Moghaddam,A. Ebadi,M. Fatahi Moghaddam
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Seedlessness is the most important characteristic of fruit quality for raisin and table grapes. Grape breeding at University of Tehran, Karaj branch, Iran started in 1999 with crossing some selected seedless and seeded cultivars at the end of evaluation of 90 cultivars in grapevine collection of College of Agriculture in Karaj. Out of 1400 progeny obtained from 26 different crosses, 381 of them which produced fruits were evaluated during growing seasons of 2006 & 2007. Progenies were divided into four groups of completely seedless, semi-seedless, semi-seeded and completely seeded, according to seed trace or seed weight. Results classified progeny to 11% completely seedless, 13.6% semi-seedless, 24% semi seeded and 51.2% completely seeded. Percentages of seedless progeny for four male parents of Askary, Yaghooti, Bidane Sefid and Bidane Ghermez were 15.4%, 10.8%, 9.3% and 10.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, percentages of seedless progeny for female parents of Muscut of Hamburg, Ghezel Uzum, Dizmary, Rajabi Sefied, Ali Baba, Alhaghi Ghermez and Tabariz were 5.4%, 5%, 17.5%, 13.2 %, 1.4%, zero and 36%, respectively. Results also showed that among male parents, Yaghooti and Bidane Ghermez cultivars and among female parents, Tabarze cultivar had better backgrounds to transmit stenospermocarpic seedlessness characteristics.
Effect of Different Rootstocks on Fruitfulness in Thompson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes  [PDF]
R.G. Somkuwar,J. Satisha,S.D. Ramteke
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: In recent years, many grape gardens have been raised on rootstocks particularly in peninsular India due to the shortage of irrigation water and salinity in the soil. There is still apprehension in the grape growers mind that which rootstock has more beneficial effects with respect to sustainable yield and quality and also the longevity of the vine. Thompson seedless was grafted on Dog Ridge, 110R, 99R, 1613C, St. George and Salt Creek and was compared with own rooted Thompson seedless for bud fruitfulness. The results revealed the significant differences with respect to rootstock and bud position. Among the different rootstocks, general performance of the and also the microscopic studies showed that the rootstock 110R can be the alternative to the present Dog Ridge rootstock which is popular among the grape growers of Maharashtra.
Growth retardants and nutrition characteristics of the Thompson seedless and Italia grape cultivars  [cached]
Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de,Dechen Antonio Roque,Castro Paulo Roberto de Camargo e
Scientia Agricola , 2000,
Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ?Thompson Seedless? and ?Italia? grapevines. The treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg L-1; daminozide - 3,000mg L-1; uniconazole - 30mg L-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .L-1 and control. The cuttings were grafted on the ?Tropical? rootstock and were rooted in sand. After 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35L pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 volume of sand, soil and organic matter. Grapevines were pruned each 150 days, leaving two canes with six buds each for the ?Italia? cultivar and with fifteen buds for the ?Thompson Seedless? cultivar. Water was supplied through drip irrigation (1L/plant/day). Grapevines were fertilized with 1L of manure and micronutrient solution at each pruning. Macronutrients (MAP-1.45g, Ca2NO3-3.42g, urea-1.61g de , KCl-3.53g and MgSO4-1.94g) were suplied each 15 days during the plant growth. The petioles and the shoots were sampled each growth season (150 days) and dry matter was evaluated for yield and macronutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg). Results show that the spray of growth regulators induced alteration in the macronutrient patterns due to the decrease of shoot rate growth and increase in fruitfull shoots.
Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature
Callejas R,Rodrigo; Canales P,Pablo; García de Cortázar G. de C,Víctor;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392009000400003
Abstract: with the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (vitis vinifera l.) cv. thompson seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the copiapó and huasco valleys. four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. measurements were performed once a week from september 2004 to september 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. the thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in july (winter). root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. high thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.
EVALUACIóN DE PLANTAS con propiedades NEMATICIDAS EN EL CONTROL DE Xiphinema index EN VID DE MESA CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS EN LA ZONA CENTRAL DE CHILE
Aballay E.,Erwin; Insunza B.,Violeta;
Agricultura Técnica , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072002000300002
Abstract: the ectoparasitic nematode xiphinema index thorne and allen is economically important in grapes (vitis vinifera l.) in chile, both as a root parasite and as a vector for grapevine fan leaf virus (gflv). the traditional methods for nematode control are based on chemical nematicides, which are erratic and very questionable for their environment effects. the objective of this research was to evaluate the nematicidal effect of eight antagonistic plant species for controlling xiphinema index on grapevines cv. thompson seedless. the selected plant species were tagetes patula, cosmos bipinnatus, zinnia elegans, gaillardia picta, calendula officinalis, thymus vulgaris, brassica napus and lupinus albus. the effect of these plants were compared with three controls: an absolute control without test plants; the nematicide fenamiphos (4 kg a.i. ha-1), and barley (hordeum vulgare) as a non-nematicidal plan. the nematicidal action of the sampled species was evaluated determining the nematode population densities in 250 cm3 of soil: 1) previous to sowing of cover crops; 2) previous to plant incorporation into the soil; 3) three months after the incorporation. the best results were obtained from growing and incorporating brassica napus, which significantly reduced x. index populations (p<0.05) in comparison with the chemical control (fenamiphos). the rest of the plant species were not effective in the control of x. index.
Retardadores de crescimento e características nutricionais das cultivares de videira Thompson seedless e Italia
Albuquerque, Teresinha Costa Silveira de;Dechen, Antonio Roque;Castro, Paulo Roberto de Camargo e;
Scientia Agricola , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162000000100009
Abstract: two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the variability in macronutrient contents in relation to growth regulator sprays on ?thompson seedless? and ?italia? grapevines. the treatments were: chlormequat - 1,500mg l-1; daminozide - 3,000mg l-1; uniconazole - 30mg l-1; mepiquat chloride - 300mg .l-1 and control. the cuttings were grafted on the ?tropical? rootstock and were rooted in sand. after 105 days of growth they were transplanted to 35l pots with a mixture of 1:1:1 volume of sand, soil and organic matter. grapevines were pruned each 150 days, leaving two canes with six buds each for the ?italia? cultivar and with fifteen buds for the ?thompson seedless? cultivar. water was supplied through drip irrigation (1l/plant/day). grapevines were fertilized with 1l of manure and micronutrient solution at each pruning. macronutrients (map-1.45g, ca2no3-3.42g, urea-1.61g de , kcl-3.53g and mgso4-1.94g) were suplied each 15 days during the plant growth. the petioles and the shoots were sampled each growth season (150 days) and dry matter was evaluated for yield and macronutrient contents (n, p, k, ca and mg). results show that the spray of growth regulators induced alteration in the macronutrient patterns due to the decrease of shoot rate growth and increase in fruitfull shoots.
Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo  [cached]
Rodrigo Callejas R,Pablo Canales P,Víctor García de Cortázar G. de C
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter). Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth. Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 a o, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y 100 cm de profundidad y se registró la temperatura cada 1 h. Con los valores de temperatura media anual y amplitud térmica anual se calculó la difusividad térmica de los suelos. Se observó crecimiento radical durante todo el a o presentando menor intensidad en el mes de julio (invierno). Las raíces mostraron diferentes patrones en la distribución de la intensidad de crecimiento en los tres rangos de profundidad, con variaciones entre los sitios de hasta cinco veces en la máxima intensidad de crecimiento anual. Suelos con difusividades térmicas altas presentaron ambientes favorables para el crecimiento de raíces.
EVALUACIóN DE PLANTAS con propiedades NEMATICIDAS EN EL CONTROL DE Xiphinema index EN VID DE MESA CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS EN LA ZONA CENTRAL DE CHILE Evaluation of plants with nematicidal properties in the control of Xiphinema index on table grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the central zone of Chile  [cached]
Erwin Aballay E.,Violeta Insunza B.
Agricultura Técnica , 2002,
Abstract: Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen es un nemátodo ectoparásito económicamente importante en la vid ( Vitis vinifera L.) en Chile, como patógeno de las raíces y como vector del "virus de la hoja en abanico" (GFLV) en vides. El control tradicional se ha hecho básicamente con productos químicos, de efectos erráticos y muy cuestionados por sus efectos ambientales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar en vides cv. Thompson Seedless el efecto nematicida de ocho plantas antagónicas en el control de Xiphinema index. Las plantas antagónicas se cultivaron en la líneas de plantación y se incorporaron como abono verde. Las especies ensayadas fueron: raps (Brassica napus L.), caléndula (Calendula officinalis L.), cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.), gaillardia (Gaillardia picta L.), lupino (Lupinus albus L.), clavelón (Tagetes patula L.), tomillo (Thymus vulgaris L.), zinia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.). El efecto de estas especies se comparó con tres testigos: testigo absoluto (sólo vides); testigo químico (Fenamiphos, 4 kg i.a. ha-1 ); y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) testigo planta sin antecedentes nematicidas. La acción nematicida de las especies ensayadas se evaluó determinando las densidades poblacionales del nemátodo en 250 cm3 de suelo en: 1) antes del establecimiento de los cultivos; 2) previo a su incorporación al suelo, a los dos meses del establecimiento; 3) 3 meses después de la incorporación. El mejor resultado se obtuvo con el establecimiento e incorporación del raps (Brassica napus), el cual redujo significativamente las poblaciones de X. index (P<0,05) en comparación con el testigo químico. El resto de las especies vegetales no fueron efectivas en el control de X .index. The ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen is economically important in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Chile, both as a root parasite and as a vector for grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV). The traditional methods for nematode control are based on chemical nematicides, which are erratic and very questionable for their environment effects. The objective of this research was to evaluate the nematicidal effect of eight antagonistic plant species for controlling Xiphinema index on grapevines cv. Thompson Seedless. The selected plant species were Tagetes patula, Cosmos bipinnatus, Zinnia elegans, Gaillardia picta, Calendula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brassica napus and Lupinus albus. The effect of these plants were compared with three controls: an absolute control without test plants; the nematicide fenamiphos (4 kg a.i. ha-1), and barley (Hordeum vulgare) as a non-nematicidal plan. T
MANEJO DE RIEGO POR GOTEO EN UVA DE MESA CV. THOMPSON SEEDLESS CULTIVADA EN SUELOS DE TEXTURA FINA
Sellés van Sch.,Gabriel; Ferreyra E.,Raúl; Contreras W.,Gonzalo; Ahumada B.,Rodrigo; Valenzuela B.,Jorge; Bravo V.,Rodrigo;
Agricultura Técnica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072003000200007
Abstract: the objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of three drip irrigation frequencies on table grapes (vitis vinifera l.) cv. thompson seedless planted on a clay loam textured soil (fluventic haploxeroll). the drip irrigation frequencies were established considering daily crop evapotranspiration (etc), estimated by evaporation pan and adjusted using a crop coefficient (kc). the treatments corresponded to a water application each time the accumulated daily etc was equivalent to 6 h (t6), 12 h (t12), and 18 h of irrigation (t18). the largest soil wet bulb size was obtained with t18. this treatment also produced greater berry weight and size. stem water potential was higher in t18 (p £ 0.05) than in the other treatments. these results can be explained, given the soil texture characteristics (clay loam), by a better water/air balance with a less frequent irrigation regime.
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