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Addressing HIV and sex work  [cached]
Ann Burton,Jennifer Butler,Priya Marwah,Cecile Mazzacurati
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: Sex work is an indisputable reality in humanitarian settings. UNHCR and UNFPA have demonstrated the importance of multisectoral interventions to address HIV in sex work
Manufacturing strategies and work organization in an engine supply chain
Alves Filho, Alceu Gomes;Rachid, Alessandra;Donadone, Julio Cesar;Martins, Manoel Fernando;Truzzi, Oswaldo Mário Serra;Bento, Paulo Eduardo Gomes;Vanalle, Rosangela Maria;
RAE eletr?nica , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-56482002000200009
Abstract: new types of relation between buyer and suppliers companies have been implemented, leading to different kinds of physical arrangement in industrial chains, and changing their economic and productive performance, the supply management, among others.this article discusses the relationship between manufacturing strategies (mss) and forms of work organization (wos) adopted by an engine assembler and nine of its supplierscompanies in the same industrial chain. , examining how the specific decisions of the assembly plant affects the decisions of those suppliers. the analysis has been carried out based on information collected from interviews with the managers responsible for the areas of manufacturing, quality, logistics and human resources. we focus specifically on the relations between an automaker and nine of its direct suppliers. it was observed that suppliers' competitive priorities are strongly conditioned by the buyer's strategy and that, although there may be a general trend towards a form of work organization, the pace of change in this area alters according to the suppliers's own manufacturing strategies, their human resources policies, the situation of the job market, and the relative power of the workers' unions.
Ergonomic interventions to improve work environment in garment manufacturing units  [cached]
Parimalam Parimalam,Kamalamma N,Ganguli A
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: The work environment in the garment manufacturing units is unhealthy and unsafe for the workers, resulting in several health problems. Analysis of garment manufacturing units using a combination of techniques revealed that the congested work area, improper ventilation, dust, unergonomic workstations, excessive noise and non-use of personal protective equipment were the major constraints faced by the workers in these units. Based on the study, interventions to improve the work environment, safety aspects and work methods have been suggested which could be adopted on a wider scale.
Embracing Sex Work’s Complexity: Global Organizing by Sex Workers  [PDF]
Erika Derkas
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.78010
Abstract: In light of atrocities leveled against sex workers in Ipswitch England and the United States the issues of safety, dignity, and violence, both structural and individual, against sex workers globally is a necessary discussion but one rarely given much attention. However, increasingly sex worker advocacy groups, specifically those working from within the industry, have taken up the charge to foster an environment which enables and affirms individual choices and occupational rights. This paper focuses on campaigns coordinated by international and national organizations to complicate deep rooted simplification of sex work by immobilizing the historical association of sex work with dysfunction, drug addiction, organized crime, and powerlessness. The socially constructed notion of sex work is re-claimed and firmly placed in the discourse of work, autonomy, and human rights. Describing the composition of organizing used by numerous activists who are engaged in sex work offers a new way to frame the issues.
Integration of Quality Function Deployment and Value Engineering in Furniture Manufacturing Industry for Improvement of Computer Work Station  [PDF]
Chougule Mahadeo Annappa,,Kallurkar Shrikant Panditrao
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Manufacturing operations in the Indian furniture industry are currently very competitive. It is necessary for entrepreneurs to improve the quality of their products and to develop processes including quality management to obtain new product design and development. Quality function deployment technique can be used in the processing development of new Computer work station to improve customer satisfaction. The use of QFD would enlarge the chance of success, produce higher quality products, and decrease the cost. The Computer Work Station was selected for this research because of its high sales number and it is most complicated compared to other furniture products. The ultimate goal of this research is to design and produce a new type of Computer Work Station. Important ratings of customer requirements are increased to some extent by effective implementation of Value Engineering with QFD. The result revealed that the average satisfaction values for all new types of computer work station are increased over those of the current computer work station from 1131 to 1956 (54.45%). Also design target values are increased from 1138 to 1988 (79.14%). Therefore with QFD approach, there is significant increase in average customer satisfaction between the current and the new designs.
Work Line Balancing and Production Efficiency of Manufacturing Firms in Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Karibo Benaiah Bagshaw
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2020.101004
Abstract: Manufacturing firms are faced with the sequencing of tasks in workstations as the capabilities of manufacturing firms is to harness resources through the effective sequencing of task assignments in workstations. Thus, this study empirically examined work line balancing and production efficiency of manufacturing firms in Rivers State, Nigeria. Content on improving production efficiency by reducing non-value-added activities, cycle time and distribution of workload at each work station by work line balancing process, was also addressed. The dimensions of work line balancing were standardized work and one-piece flow; while production efficiency was measured using product output, product quality, and lead time reduction. The Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was used to test the significance of the relationship between dimensions of work line balancing and production efficiency. The findings showed that standard work procedures in work stations’ task assignments provide better work line balance and show a positive significant relationship with product output and lead time reduction. Also, one-piece flow was revealed to have a more significant and positive relationship with product quality than product output and lead time reduction. Therefore, it was concluded that implementing appropriate work line balancing in the workstations should be an ongoing activity in the production process and setting capacity utilization baselines is key to improving production efficiency.
A. Sutcu,E. Tanritanir,B. Durmusoglu,H.I. Koruca
South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study aims to provide an integrated methodology for re-designing the layout and departmental organisation in a job shop environment. While several studies have discussed the specific re-design or re-organisation of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) through simulation or mathematical models performing improvements, an integrated approach is rare. An integrated simulation-based methodology has been developed for simultaneously re-designing the layout and the departmental organisation of an SME manufacturing facility. A wooden chair manufacturing facility has been used as a case study. It is found that the developed methodology might be useful for other SME manufacturing firms, especially in the furniture industry. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie hou ‘n ge ntegreerde metodologie vir die herontwerp van uitleg en departementele rangskikking in ‘n stukwerkwinkel voor. Terwyl verskeie studies die spesifieke herontwerp en herrangskikking van klein- en mediumgrootte ondernemings deur simulasie en wiskundige modelle probeer verbeter, is ‘n ge ntegreerde benadering raar. ‘n Ge ntegreerde simulasie-gebaseerde metodologie is ontwikkel en ‘n vervaardigingsaanleg wat houtstoele produseer word as gevallestudie voorgehou. Die toepassing van die model word as nuttig beskou vir ander klein- tot mediumgrootte ondernemings in die meubelbedryf.
An Investigation into the Use of Work Study Techniques in Nigerian Manufacturing Organsisations
A. Adebayo
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study was designed to investigate the use of work study techniques in major manufacturing industries in Nigeria. A stratified random sampling was done using seventy-three quoted companies from the major industrial zones in Nigeria. Questionnaire and interview techniques were used for collecting data for this study. Appropriate statistics were employed in the data analysis. It was found that majority of the manufacturing organizations know about work study techniques in their engineering and production activities as well as productivity improvement programme. The result of the survey revealed that a majority of the companies were not interested in the use of work study techniques due primarily to the lack of expertise knowledge, lack of necessary facilities, many engineering hours and substantial financial resources it requires. Necessary recommendations that must improve the use of the principles and tools of work study and enhance productivity of ventures are suggested.
Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity as Factors in Work Stress among Managers: A Case Study of Manufacturing Sector in Pakistan  [cached]
Nanik Ram,Immamuddin Khoso,Asif Ali Shah,Fayaz Raza Chandio
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n2p113
Abstract: The current research explores the role of ambiguity as factors in stress among the managers in manufacturing industry of Pakistan. The subject of stress at work has been thoroughly investigated in Western countries, particularly the Pakistan. Very little work has been carried out in South Asia. Pakistan has developed very rapidly into a centre place in South Asia and business centre. Thus, it is probable that managers and workers experience stress as much as their Western counterparts. The data were collected from 100 manufacturing industries workers by using simple random technique. The present research study found that role conflict and role ambiguity were positively and significantly related to work stress among Pakistani managers and work stress was negatively and significantly related to job satisfaction. Two personality variables were chosen as moderator variables, but only one, tolerance of ambiguity showed moderating effects. Locus of control failed to moderate the stressor stress and stress response relationships. Overall, this study demonstrates that stress at work does exist for a sample of Pakistani managers and that the antecedents of this stress all roles related. The paper used data from a cross-sectional survey. To capture the long-term trends, dynamics and manager’s involvement and stress within and across various institutional contexts, a longitudinal in depth study is needed. The extended business-case perspective contributes to the stress on managers. Moreover, it adds to the knowledge on employer involvement in institutional contexts which have hardly been studied before.
Effects of de-industrialization on unemployment, re-employment, and work conditions in a manufacturing workforce
Aleck S Ostry, Ruth Hershler, Shona Kelly, Paul Demers, Kay Teschke, Clyde Hertzman
BMC Public Health , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-1-15
Abstract: The study is based on a sample of 1,885 respondents all of whom were sawmill workers in 1979, a year prior to commencement of de-industrialization and who were followed up and interviewed approximately 20 years later.Forty percent of workers, 64 years and under, were employed outside the sawmill sector at time of interview. Approximately one third of workers, aged 64 and under, experienced 25 months of more of unemployment during the study period. Only, 1.5% of workers were identified as a "hard core" group of long-term unemployed. Workers re-employed outside the sawmill sector experienced improved physical and psychosocial work conditions relative to those employed in sawmills during the study period. This benefit was greatest for workers originally in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in sawmills.This study shows that future health studies should pay particular attention to long-term employees in manufacturing who may have gone through de-industrialization resulting in exposures to a combination of sustained job insecurity, cyclical unemployment, and adverse physical and psychosocial work conditions.The primary purpose of this study is to further our understanding of the dynamics of de-industrialization on unemployment and on physical and psychosocial work conditions as these are key determinants of health in workplaces. We present here a case study of a single industry, sawmilling, in the province of British Columbia (BC) in Western Canada over a 20-year period between 1979 and 1999.This investigation is based on a sample of workers employed in 14 BC sawmills in 1979 just prior to a major recession. These workers were followed up and interviewed approximately 20 years later in order to determine their unemployment history, current employment (sector and occupation), and current physical and psychosocial work conditions.Canada's resource manufacturing sector was particularly hard hit by a recession which began in 1980 and lasted until 1985 [1-3]. In BC, unemployment
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