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Formulation of a Medical Food Cocktail for Alzheimer's Disease: Beneficial Effects on Cognition and Neuropathology in a Mouse Model of the Disease  [PDF]
Anna Parachikova,Kim N. Green,Curt Hendrix,Frank M. LaFerla
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014015
Abstract: Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitaminsvitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD hallmark features and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the Tg2576 mouse model of the disease.
Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression  [PDF]
Jeroen de Keijzer, Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, Tijs Ketelaar, André A. M. van Lammeren
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039604
Abstract: Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.
The impact of food assistance on weight gain and disease progression among HIV-infected individuals accessing AIDS care and treatment services in Uganda
Rahul Rawat, Suneetha Kadiyala, Paul E McNamara
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-316
Abstract: We utilize program data from The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) in Uganda to compare outcomes among FA recipients to a control group, using propensity score matching (PSM) methods among 14,481 HIV-infected TASO clients.FA resulted in a significant mean weight gain of 0.36 kg over one year period. This impact was conditional on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) receipt and disease stage at baseline. FA resulted in mean weight gain of 0.36 kg among individuals not receiving ART compared to their matched controls. HIV-infected individuals receiving FA with baseline WHO stage II and III had a significant weight gain (0.26 kg and 0.2 kg respectively) compared to their matched controls. Individuals with the most advanced disease at baseline (WHO stage IV) had the highest weight gain of 1.9 kg. The impact on disease progression was minimal. Individuals receiving FA were 2 percentage points less likely to progress by one or more WHO stage compared to their matched controls. There were no significant impacts on either outcome among individuals receiving ART.Given the widespread overlap of HIV and malnutrition in sub-Saharan Africa, FA programs have the potential to improve weight and delay disease progression, especially among HIV-infected individuals not yet on ART. Additional well designed prospective studies evaluating the impact of FA are urgently needed.The interactions between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV/AIDS are well established [1,2]. Earlier studies from developed and developing countries consistently show that malnutrition, as assessed by low body mass index (BMI) or mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), is a strong independent predictor of mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV) [3-6]. Indeed, despite increasing access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings, recent evidence has emerged establishing preexisting malnutrition as an independent risk factor of mortality among patients initiating ART [7-9]. Combined, this evidence ha
Food-Pharma Convergence in Medical Nutrition– Best of Both Worlds?  [PDF]
Tamar C. Weenen, Bahar Ramezanpour, Esther S. Pronker, Harry Commandeur, Eric Claassen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082609
Abstract: At present, industries within the health and life science sector are moving towards one another resulting in new industries such as the medical nutrition industry. Medical nutrition products are specific nutritional compositions for intervention in disease progression and symptom alleviation. Industry convergence, described as the blurring of boundaries between industries, plays a crucial role in the shaping of new markets and industries. Assuming that the medical nutrition industry has emerged from the convergence between the food and pharma industries, it is crucial to research how and which distinct industry domains have contributed to establish this relatively new industry. The first two stages of industry convergence (knowledge diffusion and consolidation) are measured by means of patent analysis. First, the extent of knowledge diffusion within the medical nutrition industry is graphed in a patent citation interrelations network. Subsequently the consolidation based on technological convergence is determined by means of patent co-classification. Furthermore, the medical nutrition core domain and technology interrelations are measured by means of a cross impact analysis. This study proves that the medical nutrition industry is a result of food and pharma convergence. It is therefore crucial for medical nutrition companies to effectively monitor technological developments within as well as across industry boundaries. This study further reveals that although the medical nutrition industry’s core technology domain is food, technological development is mainly driven by pharmaceutical/pharmacological technologies Additionally, the results indicate that the industry has surpassed the knowledge diffusion stage of convergence, and is currently in the consolidation phase of industry convergence. Nevertheless, while the medical nutrition can be classified as an industry in an advanced phase of convergence, one cannot predict that the pharma and food industry segments will completely converge or whether the medical industry will become an individual successful industry.
Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease
Rachelle S Doody, Valory Pavlik, Paul Massman, Susan Rountree, Eveleen Darby, Wenyaw Chan
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/alzrt25
Abstract: We used standardized approaches to assess baseline characteristics and to estimate disease duration, and calculated the initial (pre-progression) rate in 597 AD patients followed for up to 15 years. We designated slow, intermediate and rapidly progressing groups. Using mixed effects regression analysis, we examined the predictive value of a pre-progression group for longitudinal performance on standardized measures. We used Cox survival analysis to compare survival time by progression group.Patients in the slow and intermediate groups maintained better performance on the cognitive (ADAScog and VSAT), global (CDR-SB) and complex activities of daily living measures (IADL) (P values < 0.001 slow versus fast; P values < 0.003 to 0.03 intermediate versus fast). Interaction terms indicated that slopes of ADAScog and PSMS change for the slow group were smaller than for the fast group, and that rates of change on the ADAScog were also slower for the intermediate group, but that CDR-SB rates increased in this group relative to the fast group. Slow progressors survived longer than fast progressors (P = 0.024).A simple, calculated progression rate at the initial visit gives reliable information regarding performance over time on cognition, global performance and activities of daily living. The slowest progression group also survives longer. This baseline measure should be considered in the design of long duration Alzheimer's disease clinical trials.There is considerable variability in progression rates among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Patients and families frequently ask clinicians to prognosticate regarding expected rates of cognitive and functional decline, and clinicians have little basis for making such predictions. We have shown that it is possible to reliably estimate early AD symptom onset, and together with baseline MMSE score, to calculate a rate of progression at the initial assessment (the pre-progression rate) [1,2]. The use of a rate to estimate early prog
MAPK Usage in Periodontal Disease Progression  [PDF]
Qiyan Li,Michael S. Valerio,Keith L. Kirkwood
Journal of Signal Transduction , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/308943
Abstract: In periodontal disease, host recognition of bacterial constituents, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces p38 MAPK activation and subsequent inflammatory cytokine expression, favoring osteoclastogenesis and increased net bone resorption in the local periodontal environment. In this paper, we discuss evidence that the p38/MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) signaling axis is needed for periodontal disease progression: an orally administered p38α inhibitor reduced the progression of experimental periodontal bone loss by reducing inflammation and cytokine expression. Subsequently, the significance of p38 signaling was confirmed with RNA interference to attenuate MK2-reduced cytokine expression and LPS-induced alveolar bone loss. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), a negative regulator of MAPK activation, was also critical for periodontal disease progression. In MPK-1-deficient mice, p38-sustained activation increased osteoclast formation and bone loss, whereas MKP-1 overexpression dampened p38 signaling and subsequent cytokine expression. Finally, overexpression of the p38/MK2 target RNA-binding tristetraprolin (TTP) decreased mRNA stability of key inflammatory cytokines at the posttranscriptional level, thereby protecting against periodontal inflammation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of p38 MAPK signaling in immune cytokine production and periodontal disease progression. 1. Innate Immunity and Periodontal Disease 1.1. Host-Microbe Interaction Within the oral cavity exists a biofilm colonized by more than 500 different microbial species, very few of which are actually associated with periodontal disease [1–3]. These periopathogenic gram-negative bacteria contain multiple virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which can induce the host inflammatory response. In periodontal diseases initiation and progression, such an inflammatory response to bacterial biofilm is exaggerated, resulting in leading to overproduction of inflammatory cytokines that cause gingival inflammation, bleeding, extracellular matrix degradation, bone resorption, and tooth loss [4–6]. Over the past two decades, how host-microbe interactions contribute to both disease initiation and associated tissue destruction have been elucidated. Epidemiological data indicate different intraindividual susceptibilities to periodontal disease, despite the long-term presence of oral biofilm [7–9]. Moreover, increased susceptibility and greater severity of periodontal disease were observed in individuals with impaired immune responses [10, 11]. The most significant
Coronary artery disease: medical therapy
J.A Ker
South African Family Practice , 2010,
Abstract: This article reviews the impact of medical therapy on the risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Immunogenetic Aspects of Disease Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ralf Wassmuth, Sylke Kaltenh?user, Ulf Wagner, Sybille Arnold, Wolfram Seidel, Michael Tr?ltsch, Ernst Schuster, Markus L?ffler, Joachim R Kalden, Holm H?ntzschel
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 1999, DOI: 10.1186/ar16
Abstract: In summary, seropositivity, early erosiveness, and RA-associated HLA-DRB1 markers are useful prognostic indicators of the progression of joint destruction. Moreover, this influence is sustained during the first four years of the course of the disease.
Five-year follow-up of angiographic disease progression after medicine, angioplasty, or surgery
Jorge Borges, Neuza Lopes, Paulo R Soares, Aécio FT Góis, Noedir A Stolf, Sergio A Oliveira, Whady A Hueb, Jose AF Ramires
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-91
Abstract: Patients (611) with stable multivessel coronary artery disease and preserved ventricular function were randomly assigned to CABG, PCI, or medical treatment alone (MT). After 5-year follow-up, 392 patients (64%) underwent new angiography. Progression was considered a new stenosis of ≥ 50% in an arterial segment previously considered normal or an increased grade of previous stenosis > 20% in nontreated vessels.Of the 392 patients, 136 underwent CABG, 146 PCI, and 110 MT. Baseline characteristics were similar among treatment groups, except for more smokers and statin users in the MT group, more hypertensives and lower LDL-cholesterol levels in the CABG group, and more angina in the PCI group at study entry. Analysis showed greater progression in at least one native vessel in PCI patients (84%) compared with CABG (57%) and MT (74%) patients (p < 0.001). LAD coronary territory had higher progression compared with LCX and RCA (P < 0.001). PCI treatment, hypertension, male sex, and previous MI were independent risk factors for progression. No statistical difference existed between coronary events and the development of progression.The angioplasty treatment conferred greater progression in native coronary arteries, especially in the left anterior descending territories and treated vessels. The progression was independently associated with hypertension, male sex, and previous myocardial infarction.The frequency of progression of atherosclerosis in native coronary arteries in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) treated either with modern revascularization strategies or by current standard optimal medical therapy alone is unknown. Most progression occurs silently, without worsening symptoms or clinical events, and consequently, the prognostic significance of coronary progression, particularly in asymptomatic patients is uncertain [1,2]. The clear contrast between the occurrences of a clinical event with the slow progression of vascular lesions suggests the
Marital distress and disease progression: A systematic review  [PDF]
Ming Guan, Bingxue Han
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510216
Abstract:

Objective: To review the state of research on the association between marital distress and disease progression. Methods: The PubMed Central, Wiley Interscience, Sciencedirect, Biomed central and Springer-link were searched to identify studies published between January 1984 and October 2012 on disease progression. Articles meeting the following criteria were selected for review: 1) study subjects were spouses, 2) the article was published within the past 28 years in a peer-reviewed journal, and 3) the research included at least one of the following outcomes-marital distress or disease progression. Articles were different on time span, the number of surveys, and the definition of disease. Results: Out of 72 screened articles, 18 met our criteria. Research demonstrates that marital distress and disease progression appear to have bidirectional influence on each other. Conclusion: Marital distress has a significant effect on disease progression. This article summarizes what is known about the association of marital distress on disease progression among spouses with disease. The authors speculate that associations between marital distress and disease progression will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards spousal service.

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