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Early Career Interest Development in Accounting: The Effect of Race after Controlling Math Performance and Gender  [cached]
Fang Yang,Lun Mo,Burak Dolar
Accounting and Finance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/afr.v1n2p59
Abstract: The under-representation of African Americans in the field of accounting in the United States remains to be a serious concern. In order to tackle the issue of diversity shortage in the accounting field, this study investigates whether there are racial differences in the development of accounting career interests in the early stages of life, and whether the early career development is time-invariant. By using the propensity scores approach and controlling for the potential influence of gender and math performance, we find that African-American students have greater accounting career interests than Caucasian students, and accounting career interest development of adolescents changes between 8th and 10th grades. The results of this study have important implications to guide the practice and research of school career counselors, educators and parents.
Inventories, Interest Rates, and Markups  [PDF]
David G. Bivin
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.12010
Abstract: This note explains why inventories might rise with interest rates. Higher real interest rates not only increase the carrying cost of inventories they also reduce the present value of the markup on delayed sales. When the markup is large enough, it is profitable to increase stocks in order to avoid sales delays. Another possibility is that the firm has an incentive to smooth its total stocks so that an increase in the real interest rate causes finished goods to fall but the reduction is partially offset by an increase in raw materials.
Assessing Midwifery Students Interest in Their Career at Medical Sciences Universities in Tehran  [PDF]
Katayon Arfaie,Sedighe Amirali-Akbary,Hamid Alavi-Majd
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Interest to education is the one of the most important factors for learning and is formed from motivation and curiosity. It is well known the person who is motivated, insists for progress and gaining knowledge more and more. Therefore, learners interest in their career is one of the optimums in educational programs improvement and ultimately it result in their reproductively and take on responsibility so lots of attention should be given to this fact. The purpose of this study was to identify midwifery students, interest to their career at three medical sciences universities of Tehran in 2006. Methods: In this descriptive study, a number of 260 midwifery students, studying in their 1st to 8th semester at Tehran medical universities participated. The sampling was done through census and the means for collecting data was questionnaire. Its validity was carried by contents validity and its reliability was assigned by means of t-test (r=0.9). The information achieved were analyses by SPSS program using Spirman correlation coefficient and statistic test of χ2. Results: Findings showed that midwifery students, interests in their career were not favorable (%37.5) and the majority of them had not selected their career with enough interest. The most important factors for interest in the career were the occupation that is usefull in personal life and the exciting experiences in this career. There was positive correlation between selecting career in regard personal trends and current interest in the career. Also, there wasn’t significant relation between interest in the career and parents, qualification, occupation and students, semester. Conclusion: With regard to findings of this study, it can conclude that the midwifery students did not evaluate their career equivalent with their needs and this fact might lead to health system damage. So, it is necessary for all midwifves to be responsible to try to find out the reasons of this problem and try to solve them. Moreover reviewing in accepting higher education students is essential
Construct Validity Of The Career Resilience Questionnaire  [cached]
Gideon P. de Bruin,Charlene C. Lew
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v28i1.32
Abstract: The construct validity of the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & VanVuuren, 1998) was investigated by means of an oblique multiple groups factor analysis.The highest factor structure coefficients of several of the items did not coincide with the respective factors that the items were postulated to measure. In addition, the correlations among the factors cast doubt on the independence of some of the constructs. Opsomming Die konstrukgeldigheid van die CareerResilience Questionnaire (Fourie & VanVuuren,1998) is aan die hand van die gekorreleerde meervoudige-groeperingsmetode van faktorontleding ondersoek. Die resultate dui daarop dat verskeie items nie hulle hoogste faktorstruktuurkoeffisiente op die gepostuleerde faktore gehad het nie.Verder het die korrelasies tussen die faktore daarop gedui dat die gepostuleerde konstrukte nie onafhanklik is nie.
A gender perspective on career preferences and entrepreneurial self-efficacy  [cached]
Boris Urban
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.293
Abstract: Orientation: Gender perspectives on entrepreneurship illustrate that women are less likely than men to prefer those occupations which have been traditionally male-dominated, because of the tendency for women to have lower self-efficacy perceptions in relation to entrepreneurial career intentions. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to establish to what extent women perceive self-employment as a viable career choice and how strong their beliefs are that they are capable of successfully performing various entrepreneurial roles and tasks. Motivation for the study: The study is relevant because national studies indicate that the ratio of female to male participation in entrepreneurial activity varies considerably across countries. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used, with responses being based on quantitative measures. Measures were tested for validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the relevant hypotheses. Main findings: The results of the study showed that women believe that they have the skills needed to be an entrepreneur and have placed their preference for entrepreneurship as a career choice high on the list of options. Practical/managerial implications: Human resources managers and educators must recognise that ‘a one-size-fits-all’ approach to training and development might not be appropriate and that gender-sensitive programming, especially in relation to different levels of entrepreneurial self-efficacy might be required. Contribution of study: The study contributes to the growing knowledge base on women entrepreneurship and increases our understanding of entrepreneurship as a viable career choice in terms of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. How to cite this article: Urban, B. (2010). A gender perspective on career preferences and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/ SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1), Art. #293, 8 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.293

Zhang Houcan,Feng Boling,Yuan Kun,

心理学报 , 2004,
Abstract: With the increase of competition in employment, career life planning has attracted more and more attention. Based on the need of high school graduates to select satisfactory majors and the basis of previous research on vocational interest, we explored the characteristers of high school students and developed an Interest Scale for College Entrance and Career Guidance. The vocational interest of Chinese high school students are classified into seven types: Artistic, Conventional, Enterprising, Investigative, Natural, Social and Technological. Both of the reliability and validity of the scale are satisfying. After certification and put into use throughout the whole country, it earns positive remarks from users.
The reliability and validity of Turkish Form of the Gender Constancy ScaleThe reliability and validity of Turkish Form of the Gender Constancy Scale  [cached]
Rengin Zembat,Sadiye Kele?
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Extended Rationale of the study: Gender has been a (research) interest for social psychology as it investigates people's social lives and every aspect of their social behaviors; and for educational sciences because of classification period and its relationship with social learning (D kmen, 2004, s.31). For this reason, there are a lot of different approaches (psychoanalytic theory, social learning theory, cognitive development theory and gender schema theory) trying to clarify the context and the development of gender and the variables it is related to. Kohlberg's views are referred to be the first ones that presented a cognitive approach while explaining gender development and cognitive development theory is acknowledged as the most effective judgment (Bem, 1989; Szkrybalo, 1998). Kohlberg suggested that gender development follows three sequential stages. These are gender identity/ labeling, gender stability over time and gender consistency across situations. A child who reached third stage, gender consistency across situations is identified to have gender constancy (Hollander, 2001). The purpose of the study: The aim of this research is to do linguistic equivalency, validity-reliability studies of Gender Constancy Scale (2004) which is reorganized according to the stages of acquiring gender constancy suggested by Kohlberg, based on cognitive development theory.Method: In this study, survey method was used. Gender Constancy Scale was used for data collection. The instrument was formed by using the items of the validated scales developed by Frey and Taylor, Slaby and Frey and Emmerich et. al. The original form of the scale is in English. The scale has fours sub-scales: Identity, Stability, Motivation and Consistency. The levels of motivation and consistency consist of close – ended and open – ended interview items. Firstly, the linguistic equivalence studies of the instrument were done and then, individual administrations were conducted. The participants of the study were 300 children aged among 3 to 7 and randomly selected from kindergartens, day-care centers of the universities and primary schools around those universities within the Istanbul City, in 2006-2007 educational year. For all groups, administrations were done between February 2007 – April 2007. Before administering the scale, necessary permission documents were gathered from government agencies and then, with this documents, the schools were visited and appropriate dates and times for administration were appointed. Moreover, the individual interview rooms of the schools were also determined
Whether or wither some specialties: a survey of Canadian medical student career interest
Ian M Scott, Bruce J Wright, Fraser R Brenneis, Margot C Gowans
BMC Medical Education , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-57
Abstract: Career choice information was collected from a survey of 2,896 Canadian medical students upon their entry to medical school. The distribution of career choices of survey respondents was compared to the current physician speciality mix in Canada.We show that there is a clear mismatch between student career choice at medical school entry and the current specialty mix of physicians in Canada. This mismatch is greatest in Urban Family Medicine with far fewer students interested in this career at medical school entry compared to the current proportion of practicing physicians. There are also fewer students interested in Psychiatry than the current proportion of practicing physicians.This mismatch between the student interest and the current proportion of practicing physicians in the various specialities in Canada is particularly disturbing in the face of the current sub-optimal distribution of physicians. If nothing is done to correct this mismatch of student interest in certain specialities, shortages and misdistributions of physicians will be further amplified. Studies such as this can give a window into the future health human resources challenges for a nation.Even though Canada has more physicians per capita than many nations, reductions in the ratio of physicians to patients combined with an aging population is expected to have implications for the health care system.[1] Between 1993 and 2000 alone, the physician to population ratio dropped by 5.1%.[1] Because of the changing demographics and practice patterns of physician providers, even if we were to maintain the same number of physicians, there would be fewer doctor-hours to provide care to patients. [2-6]In Canada, the number and specialty of physicians is determined by numerous factors including government policies, undergraduate and postgraduate training opportunities, immigration and emigration of providers, gender and age distribution of providers, remuneration incentives and disincentives and the work life
Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice
Heiligers Phil JM
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-82
Abstract: Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association). 58% of these students responded (N = 2397). Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%). For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation). Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a partner influence both choices, but they are not interacting, so living with a partner is similarly important for male and female students in choosing their preferences. Moreover, external and intrinsic motives mediate this relationship to a greater of lesser degree. First stage students are influenced by life-style and intrinsic motives in their choice of general practice. For second stage students, the results show influences of life-style motives next to profession-related motives on both moments of choice.
Career representations in high school pupils and students in relation to gender characteristics  [PDF]
A.M. Sheveleva
Psihologi?eskaa Nauka i Obrazovanie , 2013,
Abstract: We describe a study of career representations in school and university students in relation to gender characteristics. The sample consisted of 36 students of XI grade and 40 students of I year of high school. We tested the hypothesis about relationship of career representations with gen-der characteristics of the subjects and their stage of professional development. The methods we used were “career anchors” by E. Schein, “Psychological gender” by S. Bem, survey “Professional career ideals" by A.M. Sheveleva. The statistical significance level of results was 0.05. It was re-vealed that, despite both school pupils and students preferred achievements, wealth and social recognition as the content of the ideal career, there are differences between the samples. Pupils are more focused on the “General managerial competence” and “Security/stability”, the students –on “Service/dedication to a cause” and “Technical/functional competence”. Regardless of sex, school pupils with an increase of masculinity have enhanced value of ”Pure challenge” orienta-tion and lowered value of the “Mode of Life” ideal career. The female students with increased femininity have higher importance of such content ideal career as “Experience Acquisition” and “Professional Path”, the value of career orientation “Autonomy/independence” is increased.
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