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Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating
Annabelle M Wilson, Anthea M Magarey, Nadia Mastersson
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-5
Abstract: The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores.One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34–0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50–0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores.This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.There is a high and increasing prevalence of overweight and obe
Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours
Natalie Pearson, Andrew J Atkin, Stuart JH Biddle, Trish Gorely, Charlotte Edwardson
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-45
Abstract: Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described.Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations.Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.Poor diet and physical inactivity are established risk factors for chronic disease. In young people, physical activity and healthy diets including regular breakfast consumption and adequate levels of fruit and vegetables, have important short- and long-term health protective effects. For example, physical activity in young people may benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, adiposity and bone health, which could influence health in adulthood [1]. Child fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a lower incidence of respiratory symptoms [2] and appears to be protective agai
Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours
Dan A Petrovici, Christopher Ritson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-222
Abstract: A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires.Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk.The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to adopt preventive dietary habits.Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent the main cause of mortality in Romania, followed by cancer [1]. Unlike Western Europe, the mortality from CVD has increased steadily since the 1960s [2]. The mortality rates from cancer have almost doubled in Romania over the past two decades. The deterioration in health indicators in Romania during transition (increased incidence of mortality form cardiovascular diseases) is thought to be linked to a plethora of risk factors such as obesity [3]. Negative effects of fat consumption and positive effects of fruit/vegetables consumption on all causes mortali
Integrity within the University Community. Its Ethical Values, Attitudes and Behaviours
Mirela Arsith
EIRP Proceedings , 2010,
Abstract: The hypothesis, that our paper is based on, is that the university community plays an important role both in the process of shaping the students’ professional and transversal competences and in the shaping of their moral dimension. Ethical values, such as credibility, respect, equity, correctness, tolerance, might generate attitudes, such as participative interest, responsibility assumption, moral norms, dialogue willingness etc. The personal and professional development of the students from “Danubius” University of Galati, should be conditioned both by their solid knowledge, their competences of their specialization, and by their interiorethical behaviours. The future graduates should focus their future activity on a professional deontology and on the projection of the possible consequences of their actions and decisions within the individual, social and natural environment they are going to work in. The aim of our paper is to identify and analyze the strategiesof ethically shaping the students who will be specialists in communication and public relations. Our paper will demonstrate the importance of the ethical dimension within this specialization which will provide the competences of the social influence. This has multiple outcomes within the social field, having significantethical implications.
A telephone survey of parental attitudes and behaviours regarding teenage drinking
Bobby P Smyth, Catherine D Darker, Erica Donnelly-Swift, Joe M Barry, Shane PA Allwright
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-297
Abstract: We conducted a telephone survey of a representative sample of of 234 parents who had a teenager aged between 13 and 17 years.Six per cent reported that they would be unconcerned if their son or daughter was to binge drink once per month. On the issue of introducing children to alcohol in the home, 27% viewed this as a good idea while 63% disagreed with this practice. Eleven per cent of parents reported that they had given a drink to their teenager at home. Parents who drank regularly themselves, who were from higher socio-demographic groups and who lived in the east of Ireland demonstrated more permissive attitudes to teenage drinking.We found no evidence of widespread permissive attitudes and behaviours among Irish parents. Given that parental influences have been demonstrated to exert substantial impact on teenage drinking, it may be possible to harness the concerns of Irish parents more effectively to reverse the trends of escalating alcohol related harm in Ireland.The third highest rate of drunkenness in Europe has been reported for Irish teenagers, with only teenagers from Britain and the Isle of Man getting drunk more frequently [1]. In the past two decades, the average age of onset of drinking has dropped dramatically in Ireland by 3.5 years to 15 years [2]. Mongan et al reported an increase in the number of children presenting to A&E for alcohol related reasons in the past decade [3].Early onset drinking is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including increased risk of later alcohol dependence [4-7], increased risk of drug abuse [8,9], criminal behaviour [10], sexual risk behaviour [11] and suicidal behaviour [12]. Recent research has also highlighted the negative impact which regular alcohol use can have on the developing adolescent brain [13].Although peers exert an important influence on teenage drinking [14,15], research on familial risk and protective processes provides independent support for multiple domains of parental influence on adolesc
The Impact of Television on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors among Teenagers, Ages 15 - 17 Years Old, in the City of Klina, Kosovo  [PDF]
Islam Borinca
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.66068
Abstract: Sexual content on television has been shown to have significant impacts on sexual attitudes and behaviours of people, especially among teenagers. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted over the last decade to examine the connection among these areas, among other goals. Also, it is an attempt to analyze the connection between sexual attitudes and behaviours of teens and sexual content on television, as well as the dissatisfaction created, as a result of the high levels of these contents. 80 students were included in this study, conveniently selected from three schools in the city of Klina. The hypothesis is that portrayals of sex on television lead adolescents to sexual relationships. In addition, high levels of sexual content push teens to dissatisfaction with their sexual experiences. From the obtained results, it is concluded that, although TV provides consid-erable levels of sexual content, it does not encourage teenagers to early sexual intercourse, but if TV shows such content in high levels, then teenagers can be disappointed with their experience and have health as well as social problems.
Assessment of Attitudes and Behaviours of Taxi-Drivers in Ankara on the Smoking Ban in Cabs  [cached]
Nazmi Bilir,Mahmut S. Yard?m,Murat Al???k,Onur Arpat
Turk Toraks Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: In this descriptive study, it was aimed to assess attitudes and behaviours of some taxi-drivers in Ankara on the smoking ban in cabs under the Law of Preventing the Harmful effects of Tobacco Products. Material and Methods: Face to face interviews were done with 277 taxi-drivers by visiting taxi stations in Alt ndag and ankaya districts. Additionally, breath carbon monoxide levels were measured in some drivers after obtaining their informed consent. As a part of this study, the actual smoking status of the drivers and/or clients were recorded by observing the travelling taxies on the junctions of the main streets of the two districts of Ankara. Results: Sixty-four percent of taxi drivers (177 of 277) were current smokers. The majority of these current smokers (108 of 177; 61.0%) reported that they also smoked in the cabs. While more than half of the respondents (55.2%) supported the smoking ban in the cabs, one third (33.2%) of the drivers strongly disagreed with this legislation. Among the taxi drivers, there was an agreement on supporting the smoking bans in certain public places like court halls and the town bus stations (80.2% and 73.6% respectively), but on the other hand, they s were less supportive of the bans in cafes and restaurants, particularly serving alcoholic drink (41.5% and 32.9% respectively). Non-smoker drivers supported the smoking ban legislations more.Conclusion: Findings showed that compliance with the items of the Law which ban smoking in the cabs, were not sufficient. In daily life many traffic policemen are responsible for the regulation of the traffic. It will be efficacious in the eradication of smoke from the cabs, if these traffic police are informed about their authorization and duty on the tobacco control, including fining the taxi drivers who ignore the smoking ban legislation.
Effect of Mothers Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes on Omani Children’s Dietary Intake
Ali Al-Shookri,Layla Al-Shukaily,Fouad Hassan,Sadeq Al-Sheraji
Oman Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Ethnic differences in age of onset and prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours: a school-based South African study
J Mould, AA Grobler, DC Odendaal, L De Jager
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: To determine the age of onset and prevalence figures for disordered eating for diverse ethnic groups among a sample of South African schoolgirls. Method: A cross-sectional design was implemented. Two questionnaires were used to elicit prevalence figures and attitudes towards eating. Results: The study population (n = 418) consisted of black and white schoolgirls in various educational phases. Black students were found to experience a significant increase in reported bulimia-associated behaviours in grades seven to nine (mean age 13.7 years) but did not report any significant increases in drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction or poor eating attitudes across the different phases. White students reported significant increases in all measured disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grades 10-12 (mean age 16.7 years). In grades four to six, black and white students did not differ with respect to their reported disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. However, in grades seven to nine, black students were more likely to report bulimia-associated behaviours than their white counterparts. The most apparent differences emerged in grades 10-12. White students reported significantly higher drive for thinness, greater body dissatisfaction and poorer eating attitudes than their black counterparts. Furthermore, the ethnic differences that emerged during grades seven to nine with respect to bulimia disappeared in grades 10–12. Conclusion: This study fills the hiatus in the existing South African literature with respect to age of onset and prevalence of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours across ethnic boundaries. Furthermore, it creates a foundation for developing appropriate strategies to address eating disorders in the multicultural South African context.
Social Influences as Determinants of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviours among Adolescents of Reproductive Age in Nigeria
Oladeji David
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study established the influence of parenting style, siblings, sexual partners and friends/peers interactions on adolescents` sexual attitudes and behaviours. A total of five hundred and forty secondary school adolescents from three senatorial districts in Oyo State were randomly involved in the study. Their ages ranged between 15 and 21 years with a mean age of 18.2 years and standard deviation of 4.2. The two instruments used were author-constructed questionnaires with 0.81 and 0.69 reliability coefficient, respectively. The data obtained were analysed using multiple regression analysis. The result indicated that significant relationship existed between parenting style, friends/peers interactions and sexual partners but not with siblings. The results further indicated that, a combination of the independent variables significantly predicted adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviours. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviours.
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