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Reducing Land Degradation on the Highlands of Kilimanjaro Region: A Biogeographical Perspective  [PDF]
Christine Noe
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413043
Abstract:

In 2012, governments across the world adopted “The Future We Want” outcome document in Rio De Janeiro as a commitment to achieve a land-degradation-neutral world. This document reasserts the importance of sustainable land management in the top of the debates on sustainable development. This paper provides an overview of Tanzania’s preparedness towards achieving these global objectives. The paper is based on a keynote address which was presented in the conference on reducing land degradation on the highlands of Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania. Using a biogeographical perspective, the paper assesses challenges of adopting programmatic approach to sustainable land management in Tanzania. It also presents some opportunities that exist through Global Mechanism of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which promote actions leading to coordination, mobilization and channeling of financial resources to assist member countries to coordinate and sustain sustainable land management projects.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA: GENERAL LESSONS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
Michael A. Fullen
Revista Sociedade & Natureza , 2005,
Abstract: Soil conservation in the highlands of South-East Asia is essential for sustainable agro-environmental development. The effectiveness of soil conservation treatments developed in runoff plots was investigated in farmer-managed plots on a natural catchment. This wasachieved by the development and scientific evaluation of modified and novel cropping practices in a representative highland catchment in Yunnan Province, China. Wang Jia Catchment covers 40.1 hectares near Kedu, in Xundian County, north-east Yunnan (25o28'N, 102o53'E). The initial project consisted of an evaluation of the effects of modified cropping practices on maize productivity and soil properties. This programme was extended to investigate ways of increasing the productivity of maize, wheat and soybean on fragile slopes in a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way. The approach incorporates modified and novel agronomic and soil conservation measures, with the evaluation of their agricultural, environmental and socio-economic impacts using multidisciplinary approaches. This European Union funded project involved an international research team from Belgium, China, Ireland, Thailand and the U.K. Five co-ordinated work packages were implemented. Involving: (1) Background agricultural and environmental assessment of Wang Jia Catchment. (2)Implementation and evaluation of modified and novel cropping systems for wheat, maize and soybean in the catchment. (3) Cost-benefit analyses of the socio-economic impacts of the changed cropping practices. (4) Comparative scientific evaluation of the cropping techniques in the highlands of northern Thailand. (5) Dissemination of project outcomes and establishment of training programmes for best practice in highland rural development. The lessons of the Project for promoting sustainable agro-environmental development in tropical and subtropical highlands include: (1) Recognizing the importance of both ‘north-south’ and ‘south-south’ co-operation in development projects, (2) Integrating local people as full partners in the research programme, (3) Matching the different ‘time horizons’ of the different stakeholders and (4) Developing multidisciplinary teams, including biophysical scientists and socio-economists.
Summary and Outlook  [PDF]
G. Veneziano
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: This will be more of an outlook than a summary ...
Lave caves of Kilimanjaro. Mawenzi lava tubes  [PDF]
Clive Ward
International Journal of Speleology , 1998,
Abstract: This is the first short report on the exploration of lava tubes in the upper part of Kilimanjaro. The area seems to be extremely interesting from vulcanospeleological point of view.
A century of ice retreat on Kilimanjaro: the mapping reloaded
N. J. Cullen,P. Sirguey,T. M?lg,G. Kaser
The Cryosphere Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/tcd-6-4233-2012
Abstract: A new and consistent time series of glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro over the last century has been established by re-interpreting two historical maps and processing nine satellite images, which removes uncertainty about the location and extent of past and present ice bodies. Three-dimensional visualization techniques were used in conjunction with aerial and ground-based photography to facilitate the interpretation of ice boundaries over eight epochs between 1912 and 2011. The glaciers have retreated from their former extent of 11.40 km2 in 1912 to 1.76 km2 in 2011, which represents a total loss of about 85% of the ice cover over the last 100 yr. The total loss of ice cover is in broad agreement with previous estimates but to further characterize the spatial and temporal variability of glacier retreat a cluster analysis using topographical information (elevation, slope and aspect) was performed to segment the ice cover as observed in 1912, which resulted in three glacier zones being identified. Linear extrapolation of the retreat in each of the three identified glacier assemblages imply the ice cover on the western slopes of Kilimanjaro will be gone before 2020, while the remaining ice bodies on the plateau and southern slopes will most likely disappear by 2040. It is highly unlikely that any body of ice will be present on Kilimanjaro after 2060 if present-day climatological conditions are maintained. Importantly, the geo-statistical approach developed in this study provides us with an additional tool to characterize the physical processes governing glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro. It remains clear that to use glacier response to unravel past climatic conditions on Kilimanjaro the transition from growth to decay of the plateau glaciers must be further resolved, in particular the mechanisms responsible for vertical cliff development.
The vegitation of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park  [cached]
B. R. Roberts
Koedoe : African Protected Area Conservation and Science , 1969, DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v12i1.744
Abstract: The vegitation of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park
CosPA2013: Outlook  [PDF]
Francis Halzen
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Outlook talk presented at the 10th International Symposium on Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CosPA2013)
Watershed Management in Highlands of Ethiopia: A Review
Tesfa Worku, Sangharsh Kumar Tripathi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101481
Abstract: Watershed is not only a hydrological unit for hydrologist but also a socio-political-ecological entity for rural community. Ethiopian highlands hailing as the cradle of humanity and home to about  80% of the population helped shelter from foreign conquest and making a strong base of rural community. The area is threatened with erosion and loss of agricultural productivity. The soil and water conservation program initiated in 1970 achieved only limited success due to its failure in addressing to the problems of local people. The prominent reasons assigned were lack of community participation, ignoring indigenous knowledge, adopting top down approach and poor institutional collaboration. The present government taking lessons from the past, started community based integrated watershed management program removing all the shortcomings through the instrument of new policies for improved livelihood and living conditions of rural communities.
Testing of Decision Making Tools for Village Land Use Planning and Natural Resources Management in Kilimanjaro Region  [PDF]
Anthony Z. Sangeda, Frederick C. Kahimba, Reuben A. L. Kashaga, Ernest Semu, Christopher P. Mahonge, Francis X. Mkanda
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413044
Abstract:

This paper focuses on participatory testing of decision making tools (DMTs) at village level to assist in development of land use plans (LUPs) for sustainable land management (SLM) in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Data were collected using conditional surveys through key informant interviews with the project’s district stakeholders in each district, focused group discussions with selected villagers and participatory mapping of natural resources. Soil health, land degradation, carbon stock, and hydrological conditions were assessed in the seven pilot villages in all seven districts using DMTs as part of testing and validation. Results indicated soils of poor to medium health, and land degradation as portrayed by gullies and wind erosion in lowlands and better in uplands. Carbon and forest disturbance status could not be assessed using one-year data but hydrological analysis revealed that water resources were relatively good in uplands and poor in the lowlands. Challenges with regard to land use include increased gully erosion, decreased stream flow, reduced vegetation cover due to shifting from coffee with tree sheds to annual crops farming, cultivation near water sources, and overgrazing. Empowering the community with decision making tools at village level is essential to ensure that village land uses are planned in a participatory manner for sustainable land and natural resources management in Kilimanjaro and other regions in Tanzania.

Kilimanjaro?s melting glaciers: on the colonial and postcolonial perception and appropriation of African nature
Fr?mming,Urte Undine;
Etnográfica , 2009,
Abstract: over the past decade, the melting glaciers of kilimanjaro have come to symbolise the effects of global warming. at the same time, increased tourism in the region has an ambivalent quality as the industry capitalises on the celebration of the same nature (and its western appropriation) that is threatened by tourism?s major influence on world climate. in european perceptions, mount kilimanjaro has, since its first discovery in the 18th century, become an epitome of overwhelming beauty, representing - until today - wilderness and adventure to the more than 20,000 international tourists who climb the mountain each year. this paper traces how these perceptions are grounded in the foundations of aesthetic modernity that continue to shape the attraction of mount -kilimanjaro. further examinations focus on the consequences for the local population as well as the relationships between local inhabitants and international visitors attracted by the scale-making projects of an industry that continues the colonial conquest.
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