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The three-front war: pursuing sustainability in a world shaped by explosive growth
John Stutz
Sustainability : Science, Practice and Policy , 2010,
Abstract: This article characterizes the pursuit of sustainability as a three-front war. Success requires reductions not only in the environmental impact per unit of economic activity, but also in the economic growth to which we have become accustomed and the inequality that has accompanied it. To explain the difficulty in responding to this threefold challenge, the article reviews historical data on the evolution of the global economy. In the subsequent discussion, I argue that the explosive growth experienced since 1950 has created a world in which rapid progress toward and beyond affluence is “business as usual.” The pursuit of sustainability is difficult in large part because it takes place within this world shaped by explosive growth. An income transition is suggested as part of the effort to win the three-front war.
Soybean Seed Co-Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium spp. and Azospirillum brasilense: A New Biotechnological Tool to Improve Yield and Sustainability  [PDF]
Mariangela Hungria, Marco Antonio Nogueira, Ricardo Silva Araujo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.66087
Abstract: Legume nodulation by rhizobia can supply crops with nitrogen and reduce environmental impacts caused by chemical fertilization. The soybean crop in Brazil is an impressive example of how biological N2 fixation can be employed with a plant species of high economic value. However, the development of more productive cultivars, along with the increasing global climatic changes demand agricultural practices to become more productive and yet more environmentally friendly. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are highly beneficial to agriculture worldwide, acting in plant nutrition, protection, and growth stimulation. Azospirillum is, certainly, the most employed PGPR in the world, but little is known about its interaction with rhizobia, when both are applied to legume seeds. We have evaluated the co-inoculation of bradyrhizobia and azospirilla on soybean seeds under different soil and climate conditions in Brazil. Our results demonstrated that co-inoculation is efficient and beneficial to the crop, and promotes yield increases without adding any chemical N fertilizers even in soils where established populations of soybean bradyrhizobia exist. The strategy of co-inoculation thus represents a new biotechnological tool to improve soybean yield without adding any chemical N fertilizers, thus contributing to current practices of sustainability in agriculture.
Protection, Internacional Trade, and Growth
Rolf R. Mantel,Ana María Martirena-Mantel
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1988,
Abstract: Protection, Internacional Trade, and Growth Protection, Internacional Trade, and Growth
THE COMMERCIAL POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION - PART OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION POLICY
CLAUDIU-IULIAN FUEREA
Challenges of the Knowledge Society , 2012,
Abstract: The common commercial policy is a pillar for the external relations of the European Union. It is based on a set of uniform rules under the Customs Union and the Common Customs Tariff and governs the commercial relations of the Member States with Non-EU Member Countries. The EU has evolved during the process of globalization by aiming for the harmonious development of world trade and fostering fairness and sustainability. It actively encourages the opening of the markets and the development of trade in the multilateral framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). At the same time, it supports developing countries and regions through bilateral relations with a view to involving them in world trade using preferential measures.
Role Of World Trade Organisation”
Kishor N. Jagtap
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The World Trade Organization came into existence in 1995, as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT], which had been established in 1947. The WTO's main objective is the establishment of rule for Member's trade policy, which helps international trade to expand with a view to raising living standards. These rules foster non-discrimination, transparency and predictability in the conduct of trade policy
Ecological analysis of world trade  [PDF]
Leonardo Ermann,Dima L. Shepelyansky
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2012.10.056
Abstract: Ecological systems have a high level of complexity combined with stability and rich biodiversity. Recently, the analysis of their properties and evolution has been pushed forward on a basis of concept of mutualistic networks that provides a detailed understanding of their features being linked to a high nestedness of these networks. It was shown that the nestedness architecture of mutualistic networks of plants and their pollinators minimizes competition and increases biodiversity. Here, using the United Nations COMTRADE database for years 1962 - 2009, we show that a similar ecological analysis gives a valuable description of the world trade. In fact the countries and trade products are analogous to plants and pollinators, and the whole trade network is characterized by a low nestedness temperature which is typical for the ecological networks. This approach provides new mutualistic features of the world trade highlighting new significance of countries and trade products for the world trade.
Topology of the World Trade Web  [PDF]
M. Angeles Serrano,Marian Boguna
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.015101
Abstract: Economy, and consequently trade, is a fundamental part of human social organization which, until now, has not been studied within the network modelling framework. Networks are mathematical tools used in the modelling of a wide variety of systems in social and natural science. Examples of these networks range from metabolic and cell networks to technological webs. Here we present the first empirical characterization of the world trade web, that is, the network built upon the trade relationships between different countries in the world. This network displays the typical properties of complex networks, namely, scale-free degree distribution, the {\it small world} property, a high clustering coefficient and, in addition, degree-degree correlation between different vertices. All these properties make the world trade web a complex network, which is far from being well-described through a classical random network description.
Structure and Response in the World Trade Network  [PDF]
Jiankui He,Michael W. Deem
Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.198701
Abstract: We examine how the structure of the world trade network has been shaped by globalization and recessions over the last 40 years. We show that by treating the world trade network as an evolving system, theory predicts the trade network is more sensitive to evolutionary shocks and recovers more slowly from them now than it did 40 years ago, due to structural changes in the world trade network induced by globalization. We also show that recession-induced change to the world trade network leads to an \emph{increased} hierarchical structure of the global trade network for a few years after the recession.
Effects of Cowpea mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus on six Soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars
Olawale Arogundade, Samuel O Balogun, Taiye H Aliyu
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-220
Abstract: Soybean, Glycine max (L) Merrill, is one of the oldest of cultivated leguminous Oilseed belonging to the family Fabaceae. It grows in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. It has 40 chromosomes (2n = 40) and is a self-fertilized species with less than 1% out-crossing [1]. It is an annual plant that varies in growth habit and height. It may grow prostrate, not growing higher than 20 cm, or even up to 2 meters in height [1].Soybean is a source of high quality and inexpensive protein, which is about 40% of the seed [2]. The oil and protein contents in soybean together account for about 60% of dry soybean seed by weight, protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. The oil is high in essential fatty acids, devoid of cholesterol and constitutes more than 50% of the world's edible vegetable oil in trade [3]. All these advantages notwithstanding; the crop is faced with diseases such as rust, red leaf blotch, frog-eye leafspot, bacterial pustule, bacterial blight, and soybean mosaic virus among other virus diseases, are problems to be resolved in soybean. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is the most frequently isolated virus of soybean, it probably occurs wherever soybean is grown, the symptoms vary according to the particular viral strain, host genotype, weather and time of infection [4]. Cowpea mild mottle virus (CCMV) has been reported on soybean from Nigeria [5,6]. Cowpea mottle virus is of localized importance on cowpea in Nigeria [7].Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is worldwide in distribution. The virus causing cucumber mosaic has a wider range of hosts and attacks a greater variety of vegetables, ornamentals, weeds, and other plants than other viruses [8]. In view of the fact that mixed infections involving some of these viruses are possible under the tropical environments of Nigeria, but there is dearth of information on such a phenomenon, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of single and mixed infect
Ensuring the sustainability of Economic Growth: Avoiding the Mexican Experience
CPBO - Congressional Planning and Budget Office
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1994,
Abstract: Mexico paid the price for its complacency; the Mexican monetary crisis occurred because it failed to address basic weaknesses in its economy, such as low domestic savings mobilization rate, high trade and current account deficits, currency overvaluation, excessive dependence on foreign money - traits Mexico shares with the Philippines. This paper paints the Mexican crisis as a cautionary tale for the Philippines. It points to the ability of the government to manage monetary policy competently, particularly as they affect exchange rates, as the most crucial to the sustainability of economic growth. Secondly, it shows how strong and convincing measures to mobilize domestic savings need to be undertaken in order to show the investing community that the Philippines has the resolve to reduce its dependence on foreign capital.
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