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 BMC Bioinformatics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-358 Abstract: MetaBar is a spreadsheet and web-based software tool designed to assist users in the consistent acquisition, electronic storage, and submission of contextual data associated to their samples. A preconfigured Microsoft？ Excel？ spreadsheet is used to initiate structured contextual data storage in the field or laboratory. Each sample is given a unique identifier and at any stage the sheets can be uploaded to the MetaBar database server. To label samples, identifiers can be printed as barcodes. An intuitive web interface provides quick access to the contextual data in the MetaBar database as well as user and project management capabilities. Export functions facilitate contextual and sequence data submission to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising of the DNA DataBase of Japan (DDBJ), the European Molecular Biology Laboratory database (EMBL) and GenBank. MetaBar requests and stores contextual data in compliance to the Genomic Standards Consortium specifications. The MetaBar open source code base for local installation is available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GNU GPL3).The MetaBar software supports the typical workflow from data acquisition and field-sampling to contextual data enriched sequence submission to an INSDC database. The integration with the megx.net marine Ecological Genomics database and portal facilitates georeferenced data integration and metadata-based comparisons of sampling sites as well as interactive data visualization. The ample export functionalities and the INSDC submission support enable exchange of data across disciplines and safeguarding contextual data.The technological advancement in molecular biology facilitates investigations of biodiversity and functions on a temporal and geospatial scale. Improved sampling and laboratory methods, together with fast and affordable sequencing technologies [1], provide the framework to create a network of data points capable to answer basic ecologi
 American Journal of Linguistics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.linguistics.20120103.03 Abstract: This paper gives an overview of the major theoretical perspectives and factors in language acquisition. In the discussion, research findings in African setups are included alongside key American or European findings. Implications for parents and educators are highlighted together with areas requiring more inquiry.
 Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00217 Abstract: Learning theories categorize learning systems into elemental and contextual systems, the former being processed by non-hippocampal regions and the latter being processed in the hippocampus. A set of complex stimuli such as a visual background is often considered a contextual stimulus and simple sensory stimuli such as pure tone and light are considered elemental stimuli. However, this elemental-contextual categorization scheme has only been tested in limited behavioral paradigms and it is largely unknown whether it can be generalized across different learning situations. By requiring rats to respond differently to a common object in association with various types of sensory cues including contextual and elemental stimuli, we tested whether different types of elemental and contextual sensory stimuli depended on the hippocampus to different degrees. In most rats, a surrounding visual background and a tactile stimulus served as contextual (hippocampal dependent) and elemental (non-hippocampal dependent) stimuli, respectively. However, simple tone and light stimuli frequently used as elemental cues in traditional experiments required the hippocampus to varying degrees among rats. Specifically, one group of rats showed a normal contextual bias when both contextual and elemental cues were present. These rats effectively switched to using elemental cues when the hippocampus was inactivated. The other group showed a strong contextual bias (and hippocampal dependence) because these rats were not able to use elemental cues when the hippocampus was unavailable. It is possible that the latter group of rats might have interpreted the elemental cues (light and tone) as background stimuli and depended more on the hippocampus in associating the cues with choice responses. Although exact mechanisms underlying these individual variances are unclear, our findings recommend a caution for adopting a simple sensory stimulus as a non-hippocampal sensory cue only based on the literature.
 Revista Portuguesa de Ciências do Desporto , 2007, Abstract: the purpose of this study was to investigate the contextual interference effect (cie) in the acquisition of motor skills in elderly people. a manual positioning task was used, it was characterized by the transport of three tennis ball in a movement sequence and predetermined target times. the experiment consisted of 4 phases: 1) acquisition, 2) transfer 1 (t1), 3) transfer 2 (t2) and 4) retention of the acquisition. the subjects were randomly distributed into four groups: random-random group (r-r), which performed the tasks in a random order in the acquisition and retention; random-blocked group (r-b), which performed the acquisition in a random order and the retention in a blocked order; blocked-blocked group (b-b), which performed the tasks in a blocked order in the acquisition and retention; blocked-random group (b-r), which performed the acquisition in a blocked order and the retention in a random order. the results showed that one of the random groups was more variable during the acquisition compared to the both blocked groups. however, this random group, in the first block of the retention was more precise than one of the blocked groups. these results partially confirm the cie in elderly people.
 Computer Science , 2015, Abstract: Supervised, semi-supervised, and unsupervised learning estimate a function given input/output samples. Generalization to unseen samples requires making prior assumptions about this function. However, many priors cannot be defined by only taking the function, its input, and its output into account. In this paper, we propose contextual learning, which uses contextual data to define such priors. Contextual data are neither from the input space nor from the output space of the function, but include useful information for learning it. We can exploit this information by formulating priors about how contextual data relate to the target function. Incorporating these priors regularizes learning and thereby improves generalization. This facilitates many challenging learning tasks, in particular when the acquisition of sufficient amounts of training data is prohibitively costly. The first contribution of this paper is a unified view on contextual learning, which subsumes a variety of related approaches, such as multi-task learning and learning using privileged information. The second contribution is a set of patterns for utilizing contextual learning for novel problems. The third contribution is a systematic experimental evaluation of these patterns in two supervised learning tasks.
 Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2012, Abstract: To overcome the weakness of the contextual interference (CI) effect within applied settings, Brady, 2008 recommended that the amount of interference be manipulated. This study investigated the effect of five practice schedules on the learning of three field hockey skills. Fifty-five pre-university students performed a total of 90 trials for each skill under blocked, mixed or random practice orders. Results showed a significant time effect with all five practice conditions leading to improvements in acquisition and learning of the skills. No significant differences were found between the groups. The findings of the present study did not support the CI effect and suggest that either blocked, mixed, or random practice schedules can be used effectively when structuring practice for beginners
 Andrei Khrennikov Mathematics , 2001, DOI: 10.1063/1.1570952 Abstract: We study the role of context, complex of physical conditions, in quantum as well as classical experiments. It is shown that by taking into account contextual dependence of experimental probabilities we can derive the quantum rule for the addition of probabilities of alternatives. Thus we obtain quantum interference without applying to wave or Hilbert space approach. The Hilbert space representation of contextual probabilities is obtained as a consequence of the elementary geometric fact: $\cos$-theorem. By using another fact from elementary algebra we obtain complex-amplitude representation of probabilities. Finally, we found contextual origin of noncommutativity of incompatible observables.
 Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología , 2011, Abstract: a functional class refers to a circumstance in which responding is controlled by features of stimuli that are common to all the class members. it is argued that an analysis of substitution of stimulus functions is needed to account for the acquisition of functional classes of different varieties. we examined the acquisition of classes of comparison stimuli presented in a standard matching to sample (mts) preparation by exposing participants to three tests in which a contextual cue provided the basis for the formation of these classes. in this preparation the equivalence training and test phases served as a masking task that prevented the interference of naming processes or the development of rules describing the commonalities among target class members (comparison stimuli). most of the participants showed responding with respect to one or more comparison classes even in the absence of specific operant training. findings suggest that the function shared by a given set of stimuli may be acquired by another stimulus in the absence of operant reinforcement and without the involvement of verbal rules.
 PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100906 Abstract: The contextual interference (CI) effect is a robust phenomenon in the (motor) skill learning literature. However, CI has yielded mixed results in complex task learning. The current study addressed whether the CI effect is generalizable to bimanual skill learning, with a focus on the temporal evolution of memory processes. In contrast to previous studies, an extensive training schedule, distributed across multiple days of practice, was provided. Participants practiced three frequency ratios across three practice days following either a blocked or random practice schedule. During the acquisition phase, better overall performance for the blocked practice group was observed, but this difference diminished as practice progressed. At immediate and delayed retention, the random practice group outperformed the blocked practice group, except for the most difficult frequency ratio. Our main finding is that the random practice group showed superior performance persistence over a one week time interval in all three frequency ratios compared to the blocked practice group. This study contributes to our understanding of learning, consolidation and memory of complex motor skills, which helps optimizing training protocols in future studies and rehabilitation settings.
 Mathematics , 2012, Abstract: Separating codes have their applications in collusion-secure fingerprinting for generic digital data, while they are also related to the other structures including hash family, intersection code and group testing. In this paper we study upper bounds for separating codes. First, some new upper bound for restricted separating codes is proposed. Then we illustrate that the Upper Bound Conjecture for separating Reed-Solomon codes inherited from Silverberg's question holds true for almost all Reed-Solomon codes.
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