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Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Attieke Production Units in Relation to Food Hygiene and Safety in Côte d’Ivoire in 2012  [PDF]
Theodore N. Djéni, Alfred K. Kouamé, Youssouf Traoré, Rose K. Nevry, Marcellin K. Dje
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510099

The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of attieke production units in the South of C?te d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 4 months in 2012 in 7 localities and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist and microbiological analysis of hands. A total of 775 attieke production units were involved in this survey. Seventy-one percent (71%) were located on public domains and only 70 production units (9%) used septic tank as a mean of final deposal for liquid waste. Hygiene conditions and practices of food handlers in attieke production units were inadequate. The presence of specific microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter agglomerans, Citrobacter youngae, Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter freundi was indicative of a degree of ignorance on the part of food handlers towards proper hygienic practices.

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Food Handlers in Food Businesses in Accra, Ghana  [PDF]
George Amponsah Annor, Ekua Anamoaba Baiden
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.28114
Abstract: Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi – squared tests (5% significance level) as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9%) with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.
Rapid monitoring and hygiene conditions of handlers in a food industry  [cached]
Marines Abati; Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski; César Milton Baratto
Evidência : Ciência e Biotecnologia - Interdisciplinar , 2012,
Abstract: Rapid monitoring and hygiene conditions of handlers in a food industryAbstractMicroorganisms are present in water, air, soil, plants, animals and foods. Thus, any cool or processed foodproducts can be contaminated by various forms of microorganisms, especially when good hygiene practicesare not observed. This research evaluated the microbiota in the hands of employees after hand washing anduse of one of disinfectants: alcohol 70% and 0,5% biguanide. This assessment was base on the diagnosis ofsanitary and hygienic conditions in the establishment of standards and operating procedures of hygiene-SSOP. Were established twenty points samples for six consecutive months. Each sample was obtained directlyon the surface of the manipulators’ hands by using Petrifilm plates (cards) to Total Plate Count foraerobic mesophilic, and presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Thus, one hundred and six samples were collectedto determine the total amount of aerobic mesophilic (CFU/cm2) and 12 samples were used to assess thepresence of Enterobacteriaceae. The average aerobic mesophilic microorganisms after using alcohol 70%,and 0,5% biguanide was 5.08 and 5.87 CFU/cm2, respectively and showed a high variability in both groupswith standard deviations greater than the average coefficient of variation exceeding 100%. No differenceswere found in the average number of microorganisms after using any kind of disinfectants. We concludedthat Petrifilm is a quick way to achieve the microbiological monitoring of food handlers, but the use ofdisinfectants should be standardized. The absence of Enterobacteriaceae suggests that the disinfectants wereeffective in maintaining sanitary conditions suitable for those food handlers.
Health Status and Personal Hygiene among Food Handlers Working at Food Establishment around a Rural Teaching Hospital in Wardha District of Maharashtra, India
Abhay Bhausaheb Mudey,Naveeta Kesharwani,Gargi Abhay Mudey,Ramchandra C Goyal
Global Journal of Health Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n2198
Abstract: The chances of food contamination largely depend on the health status of food handlers & their hygiene behaviors and practices. Often these food handlers are being appointed without proper health examination. Hence community based cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 160 food handlers of both sex to assess health status of food handlers working in food establishment nearby a medical institute. Stool examination and nail culture was also done. There was no registration of these food establishments. Most of the food handlers were young in age, mostly cooks (35.62 %) and literate (63.13 %). Point prevalence of morbidity was 54 (33.75%) and period prevalence 26.25 %. 21.87 % were anemic. Microbial positivity rate for their stool & nail culture was 97 percent. Registration of all food establishments should be mandatory. Pre-placement and periodical medical checkup is the key to improve health status of food handlers for better food safety. Key Words: Food handlers, personal hygiene, food safety, health status, stool & nail culture
Food Hygiene Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the Food Handlers in the Military Hospitals  [PDF]
Labib Sharif, Mohammad M. Obaidat, Mohammad-Raed Al-Dalalah
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.43033

Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P < 0.05) in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP) mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.

The Sanitary Condition of Food Establishments and Health Status and Personal Hygiene among Food Handlers in a Rural Area of Western Maharashtra, India  [PDF]
Jayant D Deshpande, Deepak B Phalke
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v4i2.7895
Abstract: Background: Foodborne disease occurs in mass catering establishment that is not complying with sanitary and hygienic food handling and preparation. Objective: Objective of the present study was to explore the status of sanitary condition of food establishments and to assess hygienic practices among food handlers. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the sanitary condition of food establishments and personal hygiene of food handlers. Data was collected with the help of structured and pre-tested questionnaires. The questionnaire also allowed the interviewers to record their observations. All the data obtained was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the software StatistiXL version 1.8. Result: Separate kitchen and Onsite solid waste storage containers/receptacles were available in 4(16%) establishments. Provision for heating devices for cooked food was available in 5(20%) establishments. Wash basin present with soap were available in 10 (40%) of the food establishments. Sweeping and washing floor with water and disinfectant was done in 8(32%) food establishments. Male and female food handlers’ have equal percentage of morbidity and this difference was not statistically significant (χ2=0.0329, p=0.84), but anaemia was significantly higher among female food handlers (χ2=6.30, p=0.01). Poor hygienic practices were significantly associated with presence of infectious diseases like ARI, diarrhoea, dysentery and skin infections. (χ2=5.71, p=0.017). Conclusion : Food establishments in the study area were found to have poor sanitation and were not maintained well. The health status and the level of personal hygiene of the food handlers in the eating establishments were found to be unsatisfactory . There is need of enforcement of sanitary provisions and educating the food handlers about personal hygiene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v4i2.7895 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(2013) 23-29
Oral fecal parasites and personal hygiene of food handlers in Abeokuta, Nigeria
OA Idowu, SA Rowland
African Health Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Background: Ingestion of infective eggs and cysts of faecal orally transmissible parasites has been linked with the level of environmental and personal hygiene. The possibility of contamination of food with eggs and cysts by infected food vendors has also been recorded. Objectives and methods: This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of parasites with direct transmission and the level of hygiene among food vendors. Stools of randomly selected food vendors selling in schools and streets in Abeokuta were examined for ova and cysts of parasites using formo-ether concentration method. Questionnaires, interviews, and field observation were also used to assess the activities of food vendors. Results: Ninety-seven (97%) percent of the food vendors were infected with one or more faecal-orally transmissible parasites while 3% were free from such parasites; Parasites observed were Entamoeba histolytica with a prevalence of 72% Ascaris lumbricoides (54%), Enterobius vermicularis (27%), Trichuris trichiura (24%) and Giardia duodenalis(13%). School food vendors recorded lower prevalence of infection (92%) than the street food vendors (98.7%) (P>0.05) Fifty-two percent (52%) of the food vendors have dewormed in the last four years; Eighty percent (80%) of this were school food vendors. Infections with helminthes were recorded in 63.5% of the dewormed food vendors. Food vendors involved in child care activities were found to be more infected than those not involved in such activities. Toilet facilities available to the vendors were mainly pit latrine and other related structure (75%) while 25% had access to water system closets. During hawking, dung hills were majorly used for defaecation. Hand washing after defaecation did not include the use of soap in the few vendors that were involved in hand washing. Conclusion: There is need to enact food handling policies and implementation of such policies ensured in order to reduce transmission of oral faecal parasites.
Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata
Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley
Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3%) of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5%) and before preparing food (79.1%) was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses
Knowledge Level and Self-Reported Attitudes of Food Handlers: Case Study of a University Campus  [PDF]
Kamila Soares, Irene Oliveira, Alexandra Esteves, Maria C. Fontes, Cristina Saraiva
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.813139
Abstract: This study was performed conducting surveys to assess the Knowledge Level (KL) and Self-Reported Attitudes (SRA) of Food Handlers (FH) in order to evaluate their food safety perception. Food handlers working in 5 cafes and 6 canteens in a university campus responded to a questionnaire about food hygiene. The knowledge level about food hygiene was obtained by answering five question groups (G): Agents involved in food borne diseases (G1), Food handling hygiene (G2), Cross contamination (G3), Heat treatment/cooling techniques (G4), Reduced temperatures (G5). The SRA level was obtained through seven questions with multiple choice options on behaviors of health and safety applied to the work routine, which were considered as percentage of hits. The hygiene’s knowledge average was 75%, ranging from 63.3% (G4) to 94.5% (G3). Significant associations between establishment type and G1 (p = 0.027), professional experience and G5 (p = 0.020), training and G5 (p = 0.037) were found. Food handlers knowledge did not have effect in FH attitude (p = 0.371). From 25 FH (46.0%) who had high KL, 17 had reported incorrect attitudes. The level of hits is, in general, more than 75%, except for matters relating to the use of different cutting tables (44.4%) and knives (51.9%). Significant differences of values and odds for handlers’ knowledge were observed between cafes’ and canteens’ FH. No difference (p > 0.05) was observed in FH SRA scores according to the type of establishment. The results reveal a reduced application of knowledge acquired by food handlers, evidenced by the low level of attitudes considered correct. This clearly justifies the implementation of additional measures, including on job training as part of an effective strategy to control establishment’s food safety.
The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Handlers in Bahir Dar Town
M Kibret, B Abera
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Lack of basic infrastructure, poor knowledge of hygiene and practices in food service establishments can contribute to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the food safety knowledge and practices of food handlers and to assess the sanitary conditions of food service establishments in Bahir Dar town. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar in May 2011 and data were collected using questionnaire and observation checklist on employees’ knowledge of food hygiene and their practices as well on sanitary conditions of the food service establishments. Results: The median age of the food handlers was 22 years and among the 455 subjects 99 (21.8%) have had food hygiene training. Sixty six percent of the establishments had flush toilets whereas 5.9% of the establishment had no toilet. Only 149 (33.6%) of the establishments had a proper solid waste collection receptacle and there was statistically significant association between the sanitary conditions and license status of the establishments (p=0.01). Most of all, knowledge gap in food hygiene and handling practice was observed. In addition, there was statistically significant difference between trained (professional) handlers and non-trained handlers with regard to food hygiene practices (p<0.05). While more than 50% of the handlers prepare meals ahead of the peak selling time, more than 50% of the left over was poorly managed. Conclusion: This study revealed poor sanitary conditions and poor food hygiene practices of handlers. Educational programs targeted at improving the attitude of food handlers and licensing and regular inspections have been recommended.
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