Abstract:
Optical interference holography has been proved to be a useful technique in fabricating periodic photonic crystals in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden in certain frequency bandgaps. Compared to periodic crystals quasicrystals, having higher point group symmetry, are more favourable in achieving complete bandgaps. In this report, we propose two seven-beam optical interference configurations based on the reciprocal vector space representations for quasicrystals to fabricate icosahedral quasicrystals. Interference simulations for the quasicrystals exhibit the full symmetry of an icosahedron. The result paves the path for the fabrication of photonic quasicrystals using holographic lithography.

Abstract:
The elastic theory of quasicrystals considers, in addition to the normal displacement field, three phason degrees of freedom. We present an approximative solution for the elastic Green's function of icosahedral quasicrystals, assuming that the coupling between the phonons and phasons is small.

Abstract:
Quasicrystals can carry, in addition to the classical phonon displacement field, a phason displacement field, which requires a generalized theory of elasticity. In this paper, the third-order strain invariants (including phason strain) of icosahedral quasicrystals are determined. They are connected with 20 independent third-order elastic constants. By means of non-linear elasticity, phason strains with icosahedral irreducible Gamma^4-symmetry can be obtained by phonon stress, which is impossible in linear elasticity.

Abstract:
Quasicrystals, realized in metal alloys, are a class of lattices exhibiting symmetries that fall outside the usual classification for periodic crystals. They do not have translational symmetry and yet the lattice points are well ordered. Furthermore, they exhibit higher rotational symmetry than periodic crystals. Because of the higher symmetry (more spherical), they are more optimal than periodic crystals in achieving complete photonic bandgaps in a new class of materials called photonic crystals in which the propagation of light in certain frequency ranges is forbidden. The potential of quasicrystals has been demonstrated in two dimensions for the infrared range and, recently, in three-dimensional icosahedral quasicrystals fabricated using a stereo lithography method for the microwave range. Here, we report the fabrication and optical characterization of icosahedral quasicrystals using a holographic lithography method for the visible range. The icosahedral pattern, generated using a novel 7-beam optical interference holography, is recorded on photoresists and holographic plates. Electron micrographs of the photoresist samples show clearly the symmetry of the icosahedral quasicrytals in the submicron range, while the holographic plate samples exhibit bandgaps in the angular-dependent transmission spectra in the visible range. Calculations of the bandgaps due to reflection planes inside the icosahedral quasicrystal show good agreement with the experimental results.

Abstract:
In quasicrystals, there are not only conventional, but also phason displacement fields and associated Burgers vectors. We have calculated approximate solutions for the elastic fields induced by two-, three- and fivefold straight screw- and edge-dislocations in infinite icosahedral quasicrystals by means of a generalized perturbation method. Starting from the solution for elastic isotropy in phonon and phason spaces, corrections of higher order reflect the two-, three- and fivefold symmetry of the elastic fields surrounding screw dislocations. The fields of special edge dislocations display characteristic symmetries also, which can be seen from the contributions of all orders.

Abstract:
"Seek and ye shall find, the unsought shall go undetected." This adage, attributed to Aristophanes' can be considered one of the defining mantras of new materials research; if you don't look, you certainly will not discover. As a result of our recent discovery of the binary quasicrystalline phase i-Sc12Zn88 we proposed that there may well be other binary quasicrystalline phases lurking nearby known crystalline approximants, perhaps as peritectally forming compounds with very limited liquidus surfaces, offering greatly reduced ranges of composition/temperature for primary solidification. Here we report that, as the adage goes, we have found. Indeed, adjacent to the RCd6, cubic approximate structure, we have discovered the long sought after model system for magnetic quasicrystals: a new family of at least seven rare earth icosahedral quasicrystals: i-R-Cd for R = Gd - Tm, Y, six of which now form the known set of moment bearing, binary quasicrystals.

Abstract:
Structural studies on the icosahedral quasicrystals in Zn-Mg-Sc, Cu-Ga-Mg-Sc, and Zn-Mg-Ti alloys as well as their corresponding 1/1 cubic approximants, have revealed that these quasicrystals belong to a new structural group similar to Cd-based quasicrystals. This group is characterized by a triple-shell icosahedral cluster different from both Mackay- and Bergman-types. The presence of the atomic cluster has been deduced from the structure model of the approximant crystal, Zn17Sc3, in which the clusters are embedded in a periodic network of so-called "glue atoms". Density measurement suggested the presence of at least 2.7 Zn atoms in the first shell of the cluster in this approximant. The substitutional relationship in these three quasicrystals indicates the important role of Hume-Rothery rule for the formation of this type of quasicrystal. The occurrence of a P-type icosahedral quasicrystal in Zn-Mg-Yb alloy is also reported.

Abstract:
In this paper we describe a group theoretical approach to the study of structural transitions of icosahedral quasicrystals and point arrays. We apply the concept of Schur rotations, originally proposed by Kramer, to the case of aperiodic structures with icosahedral symmetry; these rotations induce a rotation of the physical and orthogonal spaces invariant under the icosahedral group, and hence, via the cut-and-project method, a continuous transformation of the corresponding model sets. We prove that this approach allows for a characterisation of such transitions in a purely group theoretical framework, and provide explicit computations and specific examples. Moreover, we prove that this approach can be used in the case of finite point sets with icosahedral symmetry, which have a wide range of applications in carbon chemistry (fullerenes) and biology (viral capsids).

Abstract:
Ebert et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3827 (1996)] have fractured icosahedral Al-Mn-Pd single crystals in ultrahigh vacuum and have investigated the cleavage planes in-situ by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Globular patterns in the STM-images were interpreted as clusters of atoms. These are significant structural units of quasicrystals. The experiments of Ebert et al. imply that they are also stable physical entities, a property controversially discussed currently. For a clarification we performed the first large scale fracture simulations on three-dimensional complex binary systems. We studied the propagation of mode I cracks in an icosahedral model quasicrystal by molecular dynamics techniques at low temperature. In particular we examined how the shape of the cleavage plane is influenced by the clusters inherent in the model and how it depends on the plane structure. Brittle fracture with no indication of dislocation activity is observed. The crack surfaces are rough on the scale of the clusters, but exhibit constant average heights for orientations perpendicular to high symmetry axes. From detailed analyses of the fractured samples we conclude that both, the plane structure and the clusters, strongly influence dynamic fracture in quasicrystals and that the clusters therefore have to be regarded as physical entities.

Abstract:
The nearly dispersionless, so-called "optical" vibrational modes observed by inelastic neutron scattering from icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn and Zn-Mg-Y quasicrystals are found to correspond well to modes of a continuum elastic sphere that has the same diameter as the corresponding icosahedral basic units of the quasicrystal. When the sphere is considered as free, most of the experimentally found modes can be accounted for, in both systems. Taking into account the mechanical connection between the clusters and the remainder of the quasicrystal allows a complete assignment of all optical modes in the case of Al-Pd-Mn. This approach provides support to the relevance of clusters in the vibrational properties of quasicrystals.