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Open problems and perspectives offered by current and future instruments  [cached]
Gérin M.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20111806002
Abstract: We summarize recent observational and theoretical results and discuss the open challenges for astrochemistry and the promises offered by the current and upcoming instruments. Some of the main challenges are listed below. Characterization of the structure of the interstellar medium Coupling of the matter with magnetic fields, role of cosmic rays Coupling of the dynamics with the evolution of matter (chemistry, ionization degree, depletion, desorption) Characterization of dust grains (composition, size, emissivity, polarization) Evolution of the carbonaceous matter, PAHs, aggregates and Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) carriers Oxygen chemistry and the low abundance of molecular oxygen Nitrogen chemistry and its seeds, the nitrogen hydrides Sulfur chemistry and the contribution of S+ to the charge balance of translucent matter Neutral-neutral reactions involving simple radicals (CH, CH2, OH, etc.).
大学生特质性感恩及影响因素研究
The study about the status and factors of the students trait gratitude
 [PDF]

王婕
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11835/j.issn.1008-5831.2016.03.027
Abstract: 本研究采用特质性感恩量表、自尊量表、自我效能感量表和领悟社会支持量表,通过对5 103名大学生的调查,得出大学生特质性感恩的总体现状和影响因素。结果发现:大学生特质性感恩总体较好;大学生特质性感恩在性别、年级和家庭经济状况上有显著差异;自尊和领悟社会支持对大学生特质性感恩存在显著的预测作用。文章从树立感恩榜样力量,培育良好感恩文化;关注家庭环境差异,提升家庭的社会支持力度;加大学生心理支持,关注多元心理品质培育;建立健全评价机制,强化感恩公益志愿实践等方面提出培养大学生特质性感恩的对策建议。
The study surveyed 5103 students, which completed the gratitude scale, self-esteem scale, self-efficacy and perceived social support scale. We obtained the overall status and influencing factors of the gratitude. The results show that: 1) The trait gratitude of the students was generally good; 2) The trait gratitude of the Students was significant differences in gender, grade and family economic status; 3) The self-esteem and perceived social support of students could predict the level of the trait gratitude. The study suggests those methods strengthen the gratitude behaviors, which include cultivate favorable culture, focus on the family environmental differences, enhance social support for families, increase students' psychological support, concern to multiple mental quality cultivation, establish and improve the evaluation mechanism, strengthen gratitude and public practice behaviors.
感恩和乐观的关系:领悟到的社会支持的作用
The Relationships between Gratitude and Optimism: The Role of Perceived Social Support
 [PDF]

任哲, 任凤燕, 刘萌, 杨迪, 余洁静, 张舒, 刘亚楠
Advances in Psychology (AP) , 2016, DOI: 10.12677/AP.2016.63035
Abstract:
目的:探讨大学生领悟到的社会支持在感恩与乐观之间的中介作用。方法:随机选取372名大学生,采用感恩问卷、领悟到的社会支持量表和乐观主义—悲观主义量表进行测量。结果:大学生的感恩与乐观显著正相关,感恩和领悟到的社会支持对乐观均有正向预测作用,在控制了领悟到的社会支持对乐观的影响后,感恩对乐观的正向预测作用仍具有统计学意义(β值从0.35下降到0.24,p ? 0.01)结论:领悟到的社会支持在感恩与乐观间起部分中介作用。
Objective: To explore the mediating role of perceived social support on relationship between gra-titude and optimism among college students. Methods: Totally 372 college students were surveyed with the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Perceived social support scale and Optimism-Pessimism scale. Results: The gratitude scores positively correlated with the optimism score. Regression analysis indicated that gratitude and perceived social support have positively predictability of optimism. Gratitude still positively predicts optimism (β value decreased from 0.35 to 0.24, p <0. 01) on the basis that perceived social support is controlled. Conclusion: The result of the research indicates that perceived social support has a partial mediating effect between gratitude and optimism.
Exercise therapy, quality of life, and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease: a small scale quasi-randomised trial
Bahram Yousefi, Vahid Tadibi, Ali Khoei, Ali Montazeri
Trials , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-10-67
Abstract: Twenty-four Parkinson's disease patients entered into the study. Participants were allocated into the experimental (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). ADL was assessed using the Short Parkinson Evaluation Scale/Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson Disease (SPES/SCOPA) and perceived health status was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life (PDQL) questionnaire. Patients in the experimental group received pharmacological therapy plus a 1-hour exercise therapy session 4 times a week, while patients in the control group received pharmacological therapy only. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison.The mean age of participants was 59.8 (SD = 3.0) and 58.2 (SD = 3.4) years in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The median Hoehn and Yahr stage was 3.0 for both groups. There were no significant differences in all subscales and overall scores between two groups at baseline. However, after the intervention, except for the emotional functioning (P = 0.27), there were significant differences between the two groups for Parkinson symptoms, systemic symptoms, social functioning, and overall scores of the PDQL (all P values < 0.05), and the ADL (P = 0.01) indicating that quality of life was improved in the experimental group.The findings from this small scale quasi-randomised trial showed that exercise therapy was effective in improving activities of daily living and perceived health status in patients with Parkinson's disease. Indeed, exercise therapy could be offered to patients with Parkinson disease, considering that it is low in cost and usually has no negative side effects.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN98825027Parkinson disease is a complex neurodegenerative condition with both motor and non-motor symptoms [1]. Due to a progressive loss of substantia nigra neurons, which produce dopamine, neurotransmitter imbalances occur in the basal ganglia [2]. If around 80% of neurons have been lost, Parkinson disease become evident and patients begin to
A RIGHT TO GRATITUDE
Szawarski,Zbigniew;
Acta bioethica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2005000100003
Abstract: few matters in medical ethics give rise to such passionate disputes and discussions as the issues of doctors' acceptances of diverse kinds of gifts, services or favours from grateful patients or pharmaceutical companies interested in acquiring a physicians endorsement. gratitude is a fundamental moral value. modern philosophy proposes three different, rival models of gratitude. appropriate social rules determine what, when and under what conditions counts as a reciprocation of a gift. the moral sphere between doctor and patient is incredibly complex: there appear to be four types of possible attitudes that a patient can adopt towards a physician. the art of giving is as complex as the art of receiving
Gratitude Depends on the Relational Model of Communal Sharing  [PDF]
Cláudia Sim?o, Beate Seibt
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086158
Abstract: We studied the relation between benefits, perception of social relationships and gratitude. Across three studies, we provide evidence that benefits increase gratitude to the extent to which one applies a mental model of a communal relationship. In Study 1, the communal sharing relational model, and no other relational models, predicted the amount of gratitude participants felt after imagining receiving a benefit from a new acquaintance. In Study 2, participants recalled a large benefit they had received. Applying a communal sharing relational model increased feelings of gratitude for the benefit. In Study 3, we manipulated whether the participant or another person received a benefit from an unknown other. Again, we found that the extent of communal sharing perceived in the relationship with the stranger predicted gratitude. An additional finding of Study 2 was that communal sharing predicted future gratitude regarding the relational partner in a longitudinal design. To conclude, applying a communal sharing model predicts gratitude regarding concrete benefits and regarding the relational partner, presumably because one perceives the communal partner as motivated to meet one's needs. Finally, in Study 3, we found in addition that being the recipient of a benefit without opportunity to repay directly increased communal sharing, and indirectly increased gratitude. These circumstances thus seem to favor the attribution of communal norms, leading to a communal sharing representation and in turn to gratitude. We discuss the importance of relational models as mental representations of relationships for feelings of gratitude.
Benefits and challenges perceived by patients with cancer when offered a nurse navigator  [cached]
Marianne Kirstine Thygesen,Birthe D Pedersen,Jakob Kragstrup,Lis Wagner
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Lack of communication, care and respect from healthcare professionals can be challenges for patients in trajectories of cancer, possibly accompanied by experienced fragmentation of the care, anxiety and worries. One way to try to improve delivery of care is additional help from Nurse Navigators (NN) offered in a predefined shorter or longer period, but patients′ experiences with this have seldom been investigated. Aims: To explore patients′ experiences of an NN offered in a short period of a longer trajectory of cancer. Methods: NN worked from the hospital side in the transition between primary care and a university hospital before admission. A phenomenological-hermeneutical longitudinal study was performed from referral and until two months after discharge from the hospital. Semi-structured interviews provided data for the analysis, which started open-minded. Results: Affectional bonds were made to NN and patients felt that they benefited from her presence and her help, which they requested until one month after discharge. They were deeply disappointed and felt rejected when the contact to the NN stopped. Conclusion: In efforts to increase quality of care for patients with cancer we recommend paying special attention to critical periods in their trajectories, as well as to the theory of attachment to supplement thoughts of continuity of care and coordination in the care for women. In short, it is fine to offer additional help to those who can use it, but in practice as well as in research we call attention to awareness on how and when to stop the help, to prevent patients from feeling hurt.
Mineral inadequacy of oral diets offered to patients in a Brazilian hospital
Moreira,D. C. F.; de Sá,J. S. M.; Cerqueira,I. B.; Oliveira,A. P. F.; Morgano,M. A.; Amaya-Farfan,J.; Quintaes,K. D.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012,
Abstract: introduction: while enteral diets for hospitalized patients normally follow nutrient composition guidelines, more than 90% of hospitalized patients receive oral diets with unknown mineral composition. objective: to evaluate the mineral contents and adequacy of three types of oral diets (regular, blend and soft) and complementary snacks offered to patients of a brazilian hospital. methods: the amount of minerals was determined in two non-consecutive days in duplicate samples of breakfast, collation, lunch, snack, dinner, supper and a complementary snack meal. dietary reference intakes (dris) were used to determine the adequacy of the daily amounts served to patients. results and discussion: the regular diet met the rda (recommended dietary allowances) requirements only for mn, p and se, while the blend diet was deficient in ca, k and mg, and the soft diet met rda requirements only for p and zn. iron was below the rda requirement in all diets for women in fertile age, and na was above the safe limit of intake (ul) in all the diets. the use of complementary snack was effective in meeting rda requirements for cu in the regular diet, and mn and se in the soft diet, but promoted overconsumption of na. conclusions: evident nutritional imbalances have been detected at a key interphase between nutrition and public health services, but a solution does not appear to be insurmountable. a permanent nutritional evaluation of hospital oral diets should be an integral part of routine health care in order to speed the recovery of the hospitalized patient and dispel eventual risks due to critical mineral imbalances.
Gender and the Communication of Gratitude in Jordan  [PDF]
Nisreen Naji Al-Khawaldeh, Vladimir ?egarac
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2013.33035
Abstract: This paper examines Jordanians’ perceptions of the ways and the extent to which gender influences the communication of gratitude in some everyday situations. The qualitative analysis of 20 interviews reveals a considerable influence of gender on the performance and reception of this communicative act. Differences between women and men were found in both same-gender and mixed-gender interactions in respect of the mandatoriness and the ways of communicating gratitude. The data show that Jordanian women appear to value expressing gratitude more than Jordanian men do. There is no clear-cut answer to the question of who conveys gratitude more: women or men. However, it is clear that several factors affect the production and the reception of the linguistic expression of gratitude, including: the status differential between the speaker and the hearer, the degree of familiarity between them and the weight of obligation on the speaker. Women tend to communicate gratitude to women more than men do to men, whereas men are particularly aware of the need to be polite when relating to women (especially in unfamiliar and high imposition contexts). The findings strongly support the view that generalisations about the role of gender in conversation should take account of context in the production and interpretation of communicative behaviour and point to some directions for further gender-focused investigation of the linguistic communication of gratitude within and across cultures.
Predicting Job Satisfaction: Contributions of Individual Gratitude and Institutionalized Gratitude  [PDF]
Lea Waters
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A173
Abstract:

This study examined the role that employee perceptions of dispositional gratitude, state gratitude and institutionalized gratitude had upon job satisfaction. Employees (n = 171) completed measures of dispositional, state and institutionalized gratitude together with job satisfaction. Multiple Hierarchical Regression showed that state gratitude and institutional gratitude uniquely predict job satisfaction. The results have implications for the fields of positive organizational scholarship and positive organizational behavior and suggest that workplaces aiming to increase job satisfaction can do so through organizationally-based gratitude interventions and by institutionalizing gratitude into workplace culture.

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