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Deaths in Police Custody: The ‘acceptable’ consequences of a ‘law and order’ society?  [cached]
Simon Pemberton
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: This article seeks to explain the acceptance of the rising numbers of police custody deaths in England and Wales over the last 20 years. It argues that these deaths are a consequence of the transformation in the U.K., from a social democratic to an increasingly neo-liberal mode of social organisation. The article links the characteristics of the authoritarian state, which emerged at this point in time, to the current profile of police custody deaths. Then, by using interview material with those who have investigated these cases, the article seeks to understand the narratives which are mobilised to legitimate these deaths as the ‘acceptable’ consequences of a ‘law and order’ society.
The physics of custody  [PDF]
Andrés Gomberoff,Víctor Mu?oz,Pierre Paul Romagnoli
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2014-40666-7
Abstract: Divorced individuals face complex situations when they have children with different ex-partners, or even more, when their new partners have children of their own. In such cases, and when kids spend every other weekend with each parent, a practical problem emerges: Is it possible to have such a custody arrangement that every couple has either all of the kids together or no kids at all? We show that in general, it is not possible, but that the number of couples that do can be maximized. The problem turns out to be equivalent to finding the ground state of a spin glass system, which is known to be equivalent to what is called a weighted max-cut problem in graph theory, and hence it is NP-Complete.
CUSTODY AND GUARDIANSHIP OF CHILDREN ACCORDING TO MUSLIM JURISPRUDENCE IN PAKISTAN  [PDF]
Shahzadi Pakeeza,Ali Asghar Chishti
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Custody means taking care of the one who has not reached the age of discernment and cannot live independently, and raising him in accordance with his best interests and protecting him from anything that may harm him. Main types of child custody are Joint custody, Sole or full custody, Split custody, Non-parental or third party custody. Maintenance of children is obligatory upon the father according to scholarly consensus. The GWA (Guardians and Wards Act 1890) (No VIII) is applied in Pakistan for the cases that are filed for guardianship.The determining factors for winning custody include parent’s needs; the child’s needs; the child’s interaction with parents, siblings and ones closely related who may affect his emotional stability and peace of mind, and the child’s adaptation in given environment.Certain legal standards are applied for granting child custody to ensure the best interest of the child.
Characteristics of joint physical custody families in Flanders  [cached]
An Katrien Sodermans,Koen Matthijs,Gray Swicegood
Demographic Research , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND Research conducted in the 1990s showed that children who live alternately with their mother and father after divorce (joint physical custody) have closer relationships with both parents and better emotional outcomes. In 1995 and 2006, joint legal custody and joint physical custody became the default judicial recommendations in Belgium. These defaults served to increase the incidence of joint custody arrangements. However, parents with joint physical custody arrangements who divorced before 2006 may have had higher socio-economic standing and lower conflict relationships than couples that divorced afterwards. Thus earlier research on the impact of joint physical custody arrangements on child outcomes may be too optimistic when considering children of recently divorced parents. OBJECTIVE This study examines the characteristics of four different physical custody arrangements (sole mother, sole father, joint physical, and flexible custody) in Flanders, Belgium, and whether these characteristics have changed over time. The legal changes in 1995 and 2006 are used to distinguish three divorce cohorts. METHODS We use data on 2,207 couples that legally divorced between 1971 and 2010 from the Divorce in Flanders project, a large-scale representative multi-actor survey. Multinomial logistic regression models provide estimates of the likelihoods of different physical custody arrangements. RESULTS The incidence of sole mother custody has decreased over the last decades and children increasingly alternate between the households of the mother and the father after divorce. The incidence of sole father custody has remained low. Higher educated parents are more likely to have joint physical custody arrangements than parents from lower social classes. Also, within couples, relative educational levels are important because the higher educated spouse is more likely to have physical custody of the child. We also find that the associations between socio-demographic variables and custody outcomes have changed over time. Prior to the legal changes low-conflict couples were overrepresented in joint physical custody arrangements, but this pattern has now disappeared. CONCLUSIONS Flanders has clearly followed the road towards more gender-neutral parenting. Hand in hand with changing legislation, joint physical custody has become more prevalent, and the socio-demographic profile of joint-custody families has become more heterogeneous. The increased likelihood that higher-conflict couples enter joint physical custody arrangements may have important consequences for the ch
Police diplomacy
Keki? Dalibor,Subo?i? Dane
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0902141k
Abstract: Police diplomacy is one of the most interesting issues of the contemporary international relations. Sources of this issue comes at the beginning of XX century. Organized criminal and terrorism influenced on appearance of international police cooperation at the end of XIX century. Police cooperation has enlarged last years. Termins police attaché and liason officer are used for the same purpose, but there are four key distinctions between them.
"Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?
Abraham L Halpern, John H Halpern, Sean B Doherty
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-3-21
Abstract: In June 2005 the Board of Directors of the American Psychiatric Association (AΨA)a, concerned about allegations that psychiatrists participate in detainee interrogations at the United States naval station at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, as well as in Iraq and Afghanistan, directed a number of AΨA components to clarify ethical and professional boundaries and recommend guidelines for psychiatrists' conduct in such settings [1]. After much discussion and debate regarding relevant issues, the AΨA, on May 21, 2006, approved a Position Statement, "Psychiatric Participation in Interrogation of Detainees," [2] declaring that no psychiatrist should participate directly in interrogation of prisonersb. News of the AΨA's action spread quickly; the Position Paper was widely acclaimedc.At the same time, news media reported strong criticism of the American Psychological Association (APA) for permitting participation of psychologists in interrogation of detainees. Many psychologists resigned from the APA in 2007 [3] when the Board of Directors, disregarding the protestd of a large number of members, accepted the 2005 recommendation of the Presidential Task Force on Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) that had been appointed to develop a position concerning the matter of psychologist participation in interrogations [4].PENS describes a clearly delineated role for psychologists "at distant and sequestered detention centers" created in the interest of national security and protection of the American people. According to Dr. Beth Shinn, the nine members of PENS included active-duty military officers and psychologists who worked for Defense Department agencies [5]. Some of these members were "in the chain of command at the places and during the times that abuses have been documented" [6].We believe that even if the APA had adopted the same Position Statement as the AΨA, the existing interrogation programs involving psychologists would likely have continued unchanged. National obl
Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification
Hans Wolff, Paul Sebo, Dagmar M Haller, Ariel Eytan, Gérard Niveau, Dominique Bertrand, Laurent Gétaz, Bernard Cerutti
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-245
Abstract: In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2). Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender.A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5); 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160). Illicit drug use (40.2%) and mental health problems (32.6%) were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6%) had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%), infectious diseases (23.5%), musculoskeletal (19.2%), injury related (18.3%), digestive (15.0%) or respiratory problems (14.0%). Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police.Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.Prisoners are an underserved and vulnerable population. They frequently have had limited previous access to healthcare due to educational, social and economic disadvantage [1,2]. Prison has been identified as a significant opportunity to address the health needs of vulnerable groups. In particular, prison health services aim to reduce inequalities by providing primary care services that are similar in range and quality to those available in the community [3]. Addiction, psychiatric problems and infectious disease are recognized as important health problems in prison, their extent varies widely from one setting to another [1]. Belgian prisoners have been shown to make substantial use of primary care services during incarceration [4]. In US jails 36.9% of inmates in 2002 reported having a current medical problem but only 42% of them s
Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Mary V. Seeman
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/796763
Abstract: Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a) ensure family health (b) prevent psychotic relapse, (c) prepare in advance for crisis, (d) document daily parenting activities, (e) take advantage of available parenting resources, and f) become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.
Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Mary V. Seeman
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/796763
Abstract: Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a) ensure family health (b) prevent psychotic relapse, (c) prepare in advance for crisis, (d) document daily parenting activities, (e) take advantage of available parenting resources, and f) become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community. 1. Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia A psychotic illness can, but does not need to, interfere with an individual’s ability to be a good parent. Given well-timed, appropriate, and adequate education and resources, many individuals with psychotic illness succeed in parenting their children. This is not always recognized by child welfare workers who may continue to be influenced by outdated views of psychotic illness as intractable and parenting with schizophrenia as impossible [1]. Without effective intervention, parents who suffer from psychotic illness too often lose custody of their children [2], an unfortunate outcome that can be avoided by early intervention [3–5]. The emphasis in this clinical review is on mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (because there is very little literature on fathers and effects on children merit a separate paper). 2. Method This paper used the following grouped search terms in Google Scholar (which includes MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and SOCINDEX, as well as the nursing and legal literature) for the years 2000–2011: schizophrenia/diagnosis/custody; schizophrenia/impact/custody; schizophrenia/postpartum/custody; schizophrenia/termination parental rights. Following the literature review and case illustrations (from which identifying facts have been removed), recommendations are made for mothers, care providers, and policy makers. 3. Prevalence of Custody Loss in Mothers with Psychosis Studying reports published in the last ten years, it appears that
Death during police interrogation: Case report  [PDF]
Atanasijevi? Tatjana,Nikoli? Slobodan,Popovi? Vesna
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0706342a
Abstract: Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium) of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle), they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc.), our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .
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