Abstract:
Scrum does not provide any direction about how to engineer a software product. The project team has to adopt suitable agile process model for the engineering of software. XP process model is mainly focused on engineering practices rather than management practices. The design of XP process makes it suitable for simple and small size projects and not appropriate for medium and large projects. A fine integration of management and engineering practices is desperately required to build quality product to make it valuable for customers. In this research a novel framework hybrid model is proposed to achieve this integration. The proposed hybrid model is actually an express version of Scrum model. It possesses features of engineering practices that are necessary to develop quality software as per customer requirements and company objectives. A case study is conducted to validate the proposal of hybrid model. The results of the case study reveal that proposed model is an improved version of XP and Scrum model.

Abstract:
one of the main inhibitors to the widespread acceptance of formal specification methods is the difficulty of integrating formal specification with the development process. integrated methods seek to mitigate this difficulty by integrating formal specification with widely used structured requirements analysis methods. several structured and formal methods are object-oriented. this paper describes a prototype integrated method and support tool called metamorphosis that exploits the object paradigm to integrate omt and object-z. metamorphosis is presented here to demonstrate how object-oriented analysis methods such as omt may be augmented to provide the additional rigour of formal analysis.

Abstract:
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical Current conceptions of quantitative problem-solving expertise in physics incorporate conceptual reasoning in two ways: for selecting relevant equations (before manipulating them), and for checking whether a given quantitative solution is reasonable (after manipulating the equations). We make the case that problem-solving expertise should include opportunistically blending conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning even while manipulating equations. We present analysis of interviews with two students, Alex and Pat. Interviewed students were asked to explain a particular equation and solve a problem using that equation. Alex used and described the equation as a computational tool. By contrast, Pat found a shortcut to solve the problem. His shortcut blended mathematical operations with conceptual reasoning about physical processes, reflecting a view - expressed earlier in his explanation of the equation - that equations can express an overarching conceptual meaning. Using case studies of Alex and Pat, we argue that this opportunistic blending of conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning (i) is a part of problem-solving expertise, (ii) can be described in terms of cognitive elements called symbolic forms (Sherin, 2001), and (iii) is a feasible instructional target.

Abstract:
We study groups of formal or germs of analytic diffeomorphisms in several complex variables. Such groups are related to the study of the transverse structure and dynamics of Holomorphic foliations, via the notion of holonomy group of a leaf of a foliation. For dimension one, there is a well-established dictionary relating analytic/formal classification of the group, with its algebraic properties (finiteness, commutativity, solvability, ...). Such system of equivalences also characterizes the existence of suitable {\it integrating factors}, i.e., invariant vector fields and one-forms associated to the group. In this paper we search the basic lines of such dictionary for the case of several complex variables groups. For abelian, metabelian, solvable or nilpotent groups we investigate the existence of suitable formal vector fields and closed differential forms which exhibit an invariance property under the group action. Our results are applicable in the construction of suitable integrating factors for holomorphic foliations with singularities. We believe they are a starting point in the study of the connection between Liouvillian integration and transverse structures of holomorphic foliations with singularities in the case of arbitrary codimension.

Abstract:
This paper shows an overview of a research project for integrating formal methods in popular practices for software development in Mexico. The article shows only the main results from the survey about methods and practices and an overview of the initial proposal of practices applying lightweight formal methods to requirements specification and software modelling.

Abstract:
We find all formal solutions to the $\hbar$-dependent KP hierarchy. They are characterized by certain Cauchy-like data. The solutions are found in the form of formal series for the tau-function of the hierarchy and for its logarithm (the F-function). An explicit combinatorial description of the coefficients of the series is provided.

Abstract:
This paper discusses the effects of using two different learning approaches to students’ understanding ofintegral calculus. Experimental and control groups were formed at random to participate in this research. Each group was divided into three sub groups which are low ability, medium ability and high ability groups. The formation of these subgroups was done according to their marks in an integral calculus pre-test given to them prior to the lessons. In general, students in the experimental group outperformed their peers in the control group in terms of their grasp of both conceptual and procedural understandings of integral calculus. By using mathematical software in learning integral calculus, the medium ability and the high ability students in the experimental group progressed better than the low ability students. On the contrary, in the control group, the maximum percentages of improvement in both conceptual and procedural understandings were from the low ability group. Since the main objective of integrating technology in the learning of integral calculus is to enhance every student’s understanding, a better implementation strategy needs to be drafted in the future. One possible way is to expand the usage of the technology in other calculus topics.

Abstract:
There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within a framework already familiar to resource managers.

Abstract:
An urgent need to take perception into account for risk assessment has been pointed out by relevant literature, its impact in terms of risk-related behaviour by individuals is obvious. This study represents an effort to overcome the broadly discussed question of whether risk perception is quantifiable or not by proposing a still simple but applicable methodology. A novel approach is elaborated to obtain a more accurate and comprehensive quantification of risk in comparison to present formal risk evaluation practice. A consideration of relevant factors enables a explicit quantification of individual risk perception and evaluation. The model approach integrates the effective individual risk reff and a weighted mean of relevant perception affecting factors PAF. The relevant PAF cover voluntariness of risk-taking, individual reducibility of risk, knowledge and experience, endangerment, subjective damage rating and subjective recurrence frequency perception. The approach assigns an individual weight to each PAF to represent its impact magnitude. The quantification of these weights is target-group-dependent (e.g. experts, laypersons) and may be effected by psychometric methods. The novel approach is subject to a plausibility check using data from an expert-workshop. A first model application is conducted by means of data of an empirical risk perception study in Western Germany to deduce PAF and weight quantification as well as to confirm and evaluate model applicbility and flexibility. Main fields of application will be a quantification of risk perception by individual persons in a formal and technical way e.g. for the purpose of risk communication issues in illustrating differing perspectives of experts and non-experts. For decision making processes this model will have to be applied with caution, since it is by definition not designed to quantify risk acceptance or risk evaluation. The approach may well explain how risk perception differs, but not why it differs. The formal model generates only 'snap shots' and considers neither the socio-cultural nor the historical context of risk perception, since it is a highly individualistic and non-contextual approach.

Abstract:
UML Diagrams are considered as a main
component in requirement engineering process and these become an industry
standard in many organizations. UML diagrams are useful to show an
interaction, behavior and structure of the system. Similarly, in requirement
engineering, formal specification methods are also being used in crucial
systems where precise information is required. It is necessary to integrate
System Models with such formal methods to overcome the requirements errors i.e.
contradiction, ambiguities, vagueness, incompleteness and mixed values of
abstraction. Our objective is to integrate the Formal Specification Language
(Z) with UML Sequence diagram, as sequence diagram is an interaction diagram
which shows the interaction and proper sequence of components (Methods,
procedures etc.) of the system. In this paper, we focus on components of UML
Sequence diagram and then implement these components in formal specification
language Z. And the results of this research papers are complete integrated
components of Sequence diagram with Z schemas, which are verified by using
tools and model based testing technique of Formal Specifications. Results can
be more improved by integrating remaining components of Sequence and other UML
diagrams into Formal Specification Language.