Abstract:
A better grasp of the physical foundations of life is necessary before we can understand the processes occurring inside a living cell. In his physical theory of the cell, American physiologist Gilbert Ling introduced an important notion of the resting state of the cell. He describes this state as an independent stable thermodynamic state of a living substance in which it has stored all the energy it needs to perform all kinds of biological work. This state is characterised by lower entropy of the system than in an active state. However, Ling's approach is primarily qualitative in terms of thermodynamics and it needs to be characterised more specifically. To this end, we propose a new thermodynamic approach to studying Ling's model of the living cell (Ling's cell), the center piece of which is the non-ergodicity property which has recently been proved for a wide range of systems in statistical mechanics [7]. These approach allowed us to develop general thermodynamic approaches to explaining some of the well-known physiological phenomena, which can be used for further physical analysis of these phenomena using specific physical models.

Abstract:
We consider the influence of the Fermi statistics of nucleons on the binding energy of a new type of nuclear structures such as fractal nuclear clusters (fractal isomers of nuclei). It is shown that the fractal nuclear isomers possess a wide spectrum of binding energies that exceed, in many cases, the values known at the present time. The transition of the nuclear matter in the form of ordinary nuclei (drops of the nuclear fluid) in the state with the fractal structure or in the form of bubble nuclei opens new sources of energy and has huge perspectives. This transition is based on a new state of matter - collective coherently correlated state. It manifests itself, first of all, in the property of nonlocality of nuclear multiparticle processes. We develop a phenomenological theory of the binding energy of nuclear fractal structures and modify the Bethe - Weizs\"acker formula for nuclear clusters with the mass number A, charge Z, and fractal dimension D_f. The consideration of fractal nuclear isomers allows one to interpret the experimental results on a new level of the comprehension of processes of the nuclear dynamics. The possibility to determine the fractal dimension of nuclear systems with the help of the method of nuclear dipole resonance for fractal isomers is discussed. The basic relations for fractal electroneutral structures such as the electron-nucleus plasma of fractal isomers are presented.

Abstract:
We show that a fractal affine function $f(x)$ defined by a system $\mathcal S$ which does not satisfy weak separation property is a quadratic function.

Abstract:
This is a brief introduction to fractals, multifractals and wavelets in an accessible way, in order that the founding ideas of those strange and intriguing newcomers to science as fractals may be communicated to a wider public. Fractals are the geometry of the wildness of nature, where the euclidian geometry fails. The structures of nonlinear dynamics associated with chaos are fractal. Fractals may also be used as the geometry of social systems. Wavelets are introduced as a tool for fractal analysis. As an example of its application on a social system, we use wavelet fractal analysis to compare electrical power demand of two different places, a touristic city and a whole country.

Abstract:
We find that the fractal scaling in a class of scale-free networks originates from the underlying tree structure called skeleton, a special type of spanning tree based on the edge betweenness centrality. The fractal skeleton has the property of the critical branching tree. The original fractal networks are viewed as a fractal skeleton dressed with local shortcuts. An in-silico model with both the fractal scaling and the scale-invariance properties is also constructed. The framework of fractal networks is useful in understanding the utility and the redundancy in networked systems.

Abstract:
Using a careful thermodynamic analysis of unfertilized and fertilized eggs as a paradigm, it is argued that neither classical nor statistical thermodynamics is able to adequately describe living systems. To rescue thermodynamics from this dilemma, the definition of entropy for a living system must expand to acknowedge the latent genetic information encoded in DNA and RNA.As a working supposition, it is proposed that gradual unfolding (expression) of genetic information contributes a negative entropy flow into a living organism that alleviates apparent thermodynamic inconsistencies. It is estimated that each coding codon in DNA intrinsically carries about -3k in negative entropy. Even prior to the discovery of DNA and the genetic code, negative entropy flow in living systems was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1944.

Abstract:
A 'state property system' is the mathematical structure which models an arbitrary physical system by means of its set of states, its set of properties, and a relation of 'actuality of a certain property for a certain state'. We work out a new axiomatization for standard quantum mechanics, starting with the basic notion of state property system, and making use of a generalization of the standard quantum mechanical notion of 'superposition' for state property systems.

Abstract:
We present a physical model to explain the behavior of long-term, time series measurements of chloride, a natural passive tracer, in rainfall and runoff in catchments [Kirchner et al., Nature 403(524), 2000]. A spectral analysis of the data shows the chloride concentrations in rainfall to have a white noise spectrum, while in streamflow, the spectrum exhibits a fractal $1/f$ scaling. The empirically derived distribution of tracer travel times $h(t)$ follows a power-law, indicating low-level contaminant delivery to streams for a very long time. Our transport model is based on a continuous time random walk (CTRW) with an event time distribution governed by $\psi(t)\sim A_{\beta}t^{-1-\beta}$. The CTRW using this power-law $\psi(t)$ (with $0<\beta<1$) is interchangeable with the time-fractional advection-dispersion equation (FADE) and has accounted for the universal phenomenon of anomalous transport in a broad range of disordered and complex systems. In the current application, the events can be realized as transit times on portions of the catchment network. The travel time distribution is the first passage time distribution $F(t; l)$ at a distance $l$ from a pulse input (at $t=0$) at the origin. We show that the empirical $h(t)$ is the catchment areal composite of $F(t; l)$ and that the fractal $1/f$ spectral response found in many catchments is an example of the larger class of transport phenomena cited above. The physical basis of $\psi(t)$, which determines $F(t; l)$, is the origin of the extremely long chemical retention times in catchments.

Abstract:
We prove a decomposition theorem for orthocomplemented state property systems. More specifically we prove that an orthocomplemented state property system is isomorphic to the direct union of the non classical components of this state property system over the state space of the classical state property system of this state property system.

Abstract:
We investigate the geometry of a critical system undergoing a second order thermal phase transition. Using a local description for the dynamics characterizing the system at the critical point T=Tc, we reveal the formation of clusters with fractal geometry, where the term cluster is used to describe regions with a nonvanishing value of the order parameter. We show that, treating the cluster as an open subsystem of the entire system, new instanton-like configurations dominate the statistical mechanics of the cluster. We study the dependence of the resulting fractal dimension on the embedding dimension and the scaling properties (isothermal critical exponent) of the system. Taking into account the finite size effects we are able to calculate the size of the critical cluster in terms of the total size of the system, the critical temperature and the effective coupling of the long wavelength interaction at the critical point. We also show that the size of the cluster has to be identified with the correlation length at criticality. Finally, within the framework of the mean field approximation, we extend our local considerations to obtain a global description of the system.