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Integrated hydrologic modeling in the inland Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

YanBo Zhao,ZhuoTong Nan,Hao Chen,Xin Li,Ramasamy Jayakumar,WenJun Yu,

寒旱区科学 , 2013,
Abstract: As a typical inland river basin in arid Northwest China, having distinct hydrological characteristics and severe and representative water problems, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) has attracted considerable research interest worldwide and in 2007 became a pilot basin of the G-WADI network of UNESCO/IHP. Many research programs have been conducted in the HRB since the 1980s, producing rich knowledge and data about the basin, which will be very helpful to further studies. This paper reviews research efforts related to hydrologic modeling and ongoing model integration studies performed in the HRB in recent years. Recently, an observation network covering the whole area and a Web-based data-sharing system have been established which can greatly improve data acquisition. This paper tabulates modeling activities in past years, including model applications, model modifications and enhancements, and model coupling efforts. Also described is a preliminary modeling integration tool designed to quickly build new models, which has been developed for hydrologic modeling purposes. Challenges and issues confronted in current studies are discussed, pointing toward key research directions in the future.
A distributed runoff model for inland mountainous river basin of Northwest China

CHEN Rensheng,KANG Ersi,YANG Jianping,ZHANG Jishi,

地理学报 , 2003,
Abstract: In order to predict the futuristic runoff under global warming, and to approach to the effects of vegetation on the ecological environment of the inland river mountainous watershed of Northwest China, the authors use the routine hydrometric data to create a distributed monthly model with some conceptual parameters, coupled with GIS and RS tools and data. The model takes sub-basin as the minimal confluent unit, divides the main soils of the basin into 3 layers, and identifies the vegetation types as forest and pasture. The data used in the model are precipitation, air temperature, runoff, soil weight water content, soil depth, soil bulk density, soil porosity, land cover, etc. The model holds that if the water amount is greater than the water content capacity, there will be surface runoff. The actual evaporation is proportional to the product of the potential evaporation and soil volume water content. The studied basin is Heihe mainstream mountainous basin, with a drainage area of 10,009 km2. The data used in this simulation are from Jan. 1980 to Dec. 1995, and the first 10 years' data are used to simulate, while the last 5 years' data are used to calibrate. For the simulation process, the Nash-Sutcliffe Equation, Balance Error and Explained Variance is 0.8681, 5.4008 and 0.8718 respectively, while for the calibration process, 0.8799, -0.5974 and 0.8800 respectively. The model results show that the futuristic runoff of Heihe river basin will increase a little. The snowmelt, glacier meltwater and the evaportranspiration will increase. The air temperature increment will make the permanent snow and glacier area diminish, and the snowline will rise. The vegetation, especially the forest in Heihe mountainous watershed, could lead to the evapotranspiration decrease of the watershed, adjust the runoff process, and increase the soil water content.
Analysis on the landscape structure of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China
黑河流域景观结构分析

LU Ling,
卢玲

生态学报 , 2001,
Abstract: The Heihe River Basin,as a typical inland river basin in the arid region of northwest China,is composed of different ecosystems such as mountain,oasis,and desert.Its landscape structure is mainly manifested by the desert oasis river pattern,simple composition,coarse grain size,heterogeneous mosaics,and high dependence on water sources.Our objectives in this paper were to analyse the above characteristics of inland basins and to study the application of GIS in landacape mapping and landscape structure anal...
Options of water-ecology-economy balanced development and water usage analysis in the Heihe Watershed
黑河流域水-生态-经济协调发展方案及用水效益

FANG Chuang-Lin,
方创琳

生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: The Heihe Watershed is located in the northwest arid region of China. A balanced development option among water, ecology and economy is required for the sustainable development of such watershed. This study employs the system dynamic model, intends to create such an option. Three options were chosen for the model test, i.e., the water-ecology protection option (WEP), the water-rapid economic growth option (WEH), and the water-ecology-economy balanced development option (WEE). After running the system dynami...
Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery  [PDF]
W. Ma,Y. Ma,Z. Hu,B. Su
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and the Asian monsoon system. Recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving net radiation flux (Rn), soil heat flux (G0), sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (λ E) over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research), located at the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River, northwest China. The ASTER data of 3 May and 4 June in 2008 was used in this paper for the case of mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River Basin. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux (Rn), soil heat flux (G0), sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (λ E)) were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. It is therefore concluded that the proposed methodology is successful for the retrieval of land surface heat fluxes using the ASTER data and filed observation over the study area.
Hydrologic modeling of the Heihe watershed by DLBRM in Northwest China

ChanSheng He,Carlo Demarchi,Thomas E Croley II,Qi Feng,Tim Hunter,

寒旱区科学 , 2009,
Abstract:
Hydrological Characteristics of the Heihe River Basin in the Arid Inland Area of Northwest China

Qi Feng,Wei Liu,Haiyang Xi,Dongli Liu,

寒旱区科学 , 2008,
Abstract: The hydrological characteristics of the Heihe River Basin in the arid inland area of northwest China were investigated. The spatial distribution of annual precipitation in the basin indicates that it decreases from east to west and from south to north, and increases with elevation by a gradient of 24.4 mm per hundred meters below 2,810 m a.s.l., but decreases with elevation by that of 37.0 mm per hundred meters above 2,810 m a.s.l. For the last 50 years, the mountain runoff of the basin has a tendency of increase. Except in the mountain area, the aridity is very high in the basin, and the aridity index ranges from 1.6 to 7.0 at the piedmont, to 9.0~20.0 in the midstream area and up to 40.0 in the downstream Ejin region. It is estimated for the last 50 years that a 1oC increment of annual temperature causes a 21.5 mm increase of evaporation in the mountain area, and the equivalent reduction of mountain runoff is 0.215×109 m3/yr at the Yingluoxia Hydrometric Station. The estimation shows also that a 1oC increment of annual temperature causes 1,842 mm increase of farmland evapotranspiration in the midstream area, an equivalent of 0.298×109 m3/yr more water consumption. The anthropogenic influence on the hydrological processes and water resources is then discussed.
Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China
Z. Zeng, J. Liu, P. H. Koeneman, E. Zarate,A. Y. Hoekstra
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2012,
Abstract: Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr 1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" (surface- and groundwater) component of WF was 811 million m3 yr 1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than "green" (soil water) WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.
Assessing water footprint at river basin level: a case study for the Heihe River Basin in northwest China
Z. Zeng,J. Liu,P. H. Koeneman,E. Zarate
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-9-5779-2012
Abstract: Increasing water scarcity places considerable importance on the quantification of water footprint (WF) at different levels. Despite progress made previously, there are still very few WF studies focusing on specific river basins, especially for those in arid and semi-arid regions. The aim of this study is to quantify WF within the Heihe River Basin (HRB), a basin located in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China. The findings show that the WF was 1768 million m3 yr 1 in the HRB over 2004–2006. Agricultural production was the largest water consumer, accounting for 96% of the WF (92% for crop production and 4% for livestock production). The remaining 4% was for the industrial and domestic sectors. The "blue" component of WF was 811 million m3 yr 1. This indicates a blue water proportion of 46%, which is much higher than the world average and China's average, which is mainly due to the aridness of the HRB and a high dependence on irrigation for crop production. However, even in such a river basin, blue WF was still smaller than green WF, indicating the importance of green water. We find that blue WF exceeded blue water availability during eight months per year and also on an annual basis. This indicates that WF of human activities was achieved at a cost of violating environmental flows of natural freshwater ecosystems, and such a WF pattern is not sustainable. Considering the large WF of crop production, optimizing the crop planting pattern is often a key to achieving more sustainable water use in arid and semi-arid regions.
Temporal variations of C2 concentration near land surface and its response to meteorological variables in Heihe River Basin, northwest China
CHEN Ren-sheng,KANG Er-si,JI Xi-bin,YANG Jian-ping,ZHANG Zhi-hui,YANG Yong,
CHEN Ren-sheng
,KANG Er-si,JI Xi-bin,YANG Jian-ping,ZHANG Zhi-hui,YANG Yong

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2006,
Abstract: Atmospheric CO2 concentration (CC) near land surface and meteorologica l variables have been measured at four sites, named Yeniugou (alpine meadow and permafrost), Xishui (mountainous forest), Linze (oasis edge) and Ejina (lower de sert), respectively, in Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The results showed t hat, the half hourly CC at night was larger than in daytime, and the daily avera ged CC was the largest in winter. The averaged CC of 932 d at the Linze was abou t 418 ppm, was about 366 ppm in the 762 d at the Ejina. In the same period from September 23 to November 9, 2004, the averaged CC was about 625, 334, 436 and 35 3 ppm, at Yeniugou, Xishui, Linze and Ejina, respectively. The linear relationsh ip between daily averaged CC and air temperature T was negative, between CC and relative humidity (RH) was positive. The linear CC-atmospheric pressure (AP) rel ationship was negative at the Linze and Yeniugou, was positive at the Ejina. The relationship between CC and global radiation R was exponent, and soil temperatu re Ts was negative linear, and soil water content was complex. The correlation b etween CC and wind speed was not existent. Using meteorological variables togeth er to simulate CC, could give good results.
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