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Pulsars as the Sources of High Energy Cosmic Ray Positrons
Hooper, Dan;Blasi, Pasquale;Serpico, Pasquale Dario
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2009/01/025
Abstract: Recent results from the PAMELA satellite indicate the presence of a large flux of positrons (relative to electrons) in the cosmic ray spectrum between approximately 10 and 100 GeV. As annihilating dark matter particles in many models are predicted to contribute to the cosmic ray positron spectrum in this energy range, a great deal of interest has resulted from this observation. Here, we consider pulsars (rapidly spinning, magnetized neutron stars) as an alternative source of this signal. After calculating the contribution to the cosmic ray positron and electron spectra from pulsars, we find that the spectrum observed by PAMELA could plausibly originate from such sources. In particular, a significant contribution is expected from the sum of all mature pulsars throughout the Milky Way, as well as from the most nearby mature pulsars (such as Geminga and B0656+14). The signal from nearby pulsars is expected to generate a small but significant dipole anisotropy in the cosmic ray electron spectrum, potentially providing a method by which the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope would be capable of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter origins of the observed high energy positrons.
Gamma Ray Bursts, Cosmic Ray Origin, and the Unidentified EGRET Sources  [PDF]
Charles D. Dermer
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1370792
Abstract: Statistical arguments show that the volume- and time-averaged kinetic power of GRBs and fireball transients (FTs) into an L* galaxy like the Milky Way is at the level of 10^40 ergs/s. This number, though with wide uncertainties related to the internal or external shock efficiency, is sufficient to power hadronic cosmic rays observed locally. The release of energy by the high-mass progenitor stars of GRBs and FTs is sufficient to power the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, as already shown by Waxman and Vietri in 1995. It is sufficient to power the cosmic rays above the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. Indeed, all hadronic cosmic rays could originate from the high-mass (>~ 100 M_o) stars that collapse to black holes, in the process forming GRBs and FTs. This source class represents a new solution to the problem of cosmic-ray origin. The ~10^4 - 10^7 black holes made by these stars could make their presence known by radiating as they accrete from the ISM, by microlensing background radiations, and by forming luminous binary systems. Some unidentified EGRET sources could be isolated black holes that accrete from the ISM. Better imaging and sensitivity with GLAST and TeV observatories will test this model for the unidentified gamma-ray sources, and this theory for cosmic-ray origin.
Gamma-ray bursters as sources of cosmic rays  [PDF]
Mordehai Milgrom,Vladimir Usov
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1016/0927-6505(95)00052-6
Abstract: The little we do know of the physical conditions in gamma-ray bursters makes them conducive to the acceleration of high-energy cosmic rays, especially if they are at cosmological distances. We find that, with the observed statistics and fluxes of gamma-ray bursts, cosmological bursters may be an important source of cosmic rays in two regions of the observed spectrum: 1. At the very-high-energy end (E>10^{19} eV), where cosmic rays must be of extragalactic origin. 2. Around and above the spectral feature that has been described as a bump and/or a knee, which occurs around 10^{15} eV, and starts at about 10^{14} eV. The occasional bursters that occur inside the Galaxy--about once in a few hundred thousand years if burst emission is isotropic; more often, if it is beamed--could maintain the density of galactic cosmic rays at the observed level in this range. These two energy ranges might correspond to two typical energy scales expected from bursters: one pertinent to acceleration due to interaction of a magnetized-fireball front with an ambient medium; the other to acceleration in the fireball itself (e.g. shock acceleration).
Upper limits on the total cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources  [PDF]
R. C. Anjos,V. de Souza,D. A. Supanitsky
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2014/07/049
Abstract: In this paper, upper limits on the total luminosity of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) (E > $10^{18}$ eV) are determined for five individual sources. The upper limit on the integral flux of GeV-TeV gamma-rays of a given source is used to extract the upper limit on the total UHECR luminosity. The correlation between upper limit on the integral GeVTeV gamma-ray flux and upper limit on the UHECR luminosity is established through the cascading process that takes place during propagation of the cosmic rays in the background radiation fields, as explained in reference [1]. Twenty-eight sources measured by FERMI-LAT, VERITAS and MAGIC observatories have been studied. The measured upper limit on the GeV-TeV gamma-ray flux is restrictive enough to allow the calculation of an upper limit on the total UHECR cosmic-ray luminosity of five sources. The upper limit on the UHECR cosmicray luminosity of these sources is shown for several assumptions on the emission mechanism. For all studied sources an upper limit on the ultra-high-energy proton luminosity is also set.
Cosmic-Ray Positrons: Are There Primary Sources?  [PDF]
Stephane Coutu,Steven W. Barwick,James J. Beatty,Amit Bhattacharyya,Chuck R. Bower,Christopher J. Chaput,Georgia A. de Nolfo,Michael A. DuVernois,Allan Labrador,Shawn P. McKee,Dietrich Muller,James A. Musser,Scott L. Nutter,Eric Schneider,Simon P. Swordy,Gregory Tarle,Andrew D. Tomasch,Eric Torbet
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0927-6505(99)00011-0
Abstract: Cosmic rays at the Earth include a secondary component originating in collisions of primary particles with the diffuse interstellar gas. The secondary cosmic rays are relatively rare but carry important information on the Galactic propagation of the primary particles. The secondary component includes a small fraction of antimatter particles, positrons and antiprotons. In addition, positrons and antiprotons may also come from unusual sources and possibly provide insight into new physics. For instance, the annihilation of heavy supersymmetric dark matter particles within the Galactic halo could lead to positrons or antiprotons with distinctive energy signatures. With the High-Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) balloon-borne instrument, we have measured the abundances of positrons and electrons at energies between 1 and 50 GeV. The data suggest that indeed a small additional antimatter component may be present that cannot be explained by a purely secondary production mechanism. Here we describe the signature of the effect and discuss its possible origin.
Acceleration of UHE Cosmic Ray Particles at Relativistic Jets in Extragalactic Radio Sources  [PDF]
M. Ostrowski
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: A mechanism of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic ray acceleration in extragalactic radio sources at the interface between the relativistic jet and the ambient medium is discussed as a supplement to the shock acceleration in `hot spots'. Particles accelerated at the jet side boundary are expected to dominate at highest energies. The spectrum formation near the cut-off energy is modeled using the Monte Carlo particle simulations.
Cosmic ray electrons and positrons from discrete stochastic sources  [PDF]
Philipp Mertsch
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/02/031
Abstract: The distances that galactic cosmic ray electrons and positrons can travel are severely limited by energy losses to at most a few kiloparsec, thereby rendering the local spectrum very sensitive to the exact distribution of sources in our galactic neighbourhood. However, due to our ignorance of the exact source distribution, we can only predict the spectrum stochastically. We argue that even in the case of a large number of sources the central limit theorem is not applicable, but that the standard deviation for the flux from a random source is divergent due to a long power law tail of the probability density. Instead, we compute the expectation value and characterise the scatter around it by quantiles of the probability density using a generalised central limit theorem in a fully analytical way. The uncertainty band is asymmetric about the expectation value and can become quite large for TeV energies. In particular, the predicted local spectrum is marginally consistent with the measurements by Fermi-LAT and HESS even without imposing spectral breaks or cut-offs at source. We conclude that this uncertainty has to be properly accounted for when predicting electron fluxes above a few hundred GeV from astrophysical sources.
Acceleration of UHE Cosmic Ray Particles at Relativistic Jets in Extragalactic Radio Sources  [PDF]
M. Ostrowski
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: A mechanism of ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration in extragalactic radio sources, at the interface between the relativistic jet and the surrounding medium, is discussed as a supplement to the shock acceleration in `hot spots'. Due to crossing the tangential discontinuity of the velocity the particle can gain an amount of energy comparable to the energy gain at the shock crossing. However, the spectrum of particles accelerated at the jet side boundary is expected to be much flatter than the one formed at the shock. Due to this fact, particles accelerated at the boundary can dominate the overall spectrum at highest energies. In conditions characteristic to extragalactic jets' terminal shocks, the mechanism naturally provides the particles with E ~ 10^20 eV and complies with the efficiency requirements. The spectrum formation near the cut-off energy due to action of both the shock acceleration and the tangential discontinuity acceleration is modelled with the Monte Carlo particle simulations. It confirms that the upper energy limit can surpass the shock acceleration estimate.
An upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of individual sources from gamma-ray observations  [PDF]
A. D. Supanitsky,V. de Souza
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/12/023
Abstract: Different types of extragalactic objects are known to produce TeV gamma-rays. Some of these objects are the most probable candidates to accelerate cosmic rays up to 10^20 eV. It is very well known that gamma-rays can be produced as a result of the cosmic ray propagation through the intergalactic medium. These gamma-rays contribute to the total flux observed in the direction of the source. In this paper we propose a new method to derive an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of an individual source based on the measured upper limit on the integral flux of GeV-TeV gamma-rays. We show how it is possible to calculate an upper limit on the cosmic-ray luminosity of a particular source and we explore the parameter space in which the current GeV-TeV gamma-ray measurements can offer a useful determination. We study in detail two particular sources, Pictor A and NGC 7469, and we calculate the upper limit on the proton luminosity of each source based on the upper limit on the integral gamma-ray flux measured by the H.E.S.S. telescopes.
Search for Nuclei Sources in the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Data  [PDF]
G. Giacinti,D. V. Semikoz
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We present a new method to search for heavy nuclei sources, on top of background, in the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray data. We apply it to the 69 events with energies E>55 EeV published by the Pierre Auger Collaboration. We find a set of events for which the method reconstructs the source near the Virgo galaxy cluster. The probability to have a comparable set of events in some background is ~ 0.7 %. The reconstructed source is located at ~ 8.5 degrees from the active galaxy M87. The probability to reconstruct the source at less than 10 degrees from M87 for data already containing a comparable set of events is ~ 0.4 %. This may be a hint at the Virgo galaxy cluster as an ultra-high energy heavy nuclei source. We discuss the capability of current and near future experiments to test this possibility. Such a scenario gives a self-consistent description of the Auger anisotropy and composition data at the highest energies.
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