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An Integrated Framework to Analyze Local Decision Making and Adaptation to Sea Level Rise in Coastal Regions in Selsey (UK), Broward County (USA), and Santos (Brazil)  [PDF]
J. Marengo, F. Muller-Karger, M. Pelling, C. J. Reynolds, S. B. Merrill, L. H. Nunes, S. Paterson, A. J. Gray, J. T. Lockman, J. Kartez, F. A. Moreira, R. Greco, J. Harari, C. R. G. Souza, L. M. Alves, E. K. Hosokawa, E. K. Tabuchi
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.62021
Abstract: One of the clear signals of the ongoing climate change is sea level rise (SLR). Normal oceanic tides superimposed on a rising sea level and coastal flooding will affect many coastal communities. An international collaboration among Brazil, the United Kingdom, and the United States was designed to evaluate local decision making processes and to open space for local urban managers to reflect on possible actions toward adaption to sea level rise given the historical constraints imposed by administrative and institutional structures. This project focused on the processes that shape adaptation of three coastal communities in three countries. It worked jointly with these communities in defining the problem, examining risks, and understanding the benefits and obstacles that may hinder implementation of adaptation options. The framework was co-designed by an interdisciplinary team that incorporated social and natural scientists from the three countries, including local government officials. The study addressed 1) evaluation of adaptive capacity through participant surveys and 2) physical and cost impact simulations using geospatial models of the built infrastructure and implementation of adaptation options under different hazard scenarios, including 50 and 100-year sea level rise projections and severe storms. Based on the surveys’ results, there is a clear sense of the awareness of each community of the risk of floods due to intense storms, and of the usefulness of engaging early in a process that promotes the understanding of risks, impacts, and costs. A majority of workshop participants prioritized pursuing physical and green infrastructure actions now or within coming years or decades. A positive common aspect of the three sites was the commitment shown by the stakeholders in taking part in the process and evaluating which adaptation measures could be more effective in their cities. While in the US and UK structural solutions and voluntary buyouts were prioritized for the future, Brazil prioritized structural solutions and ecosystems restoration and not voluntary buyouts. All of these are choices to increase resiliency against sea level rise that have a high benefit-cost ratio. The Adaptive Capacity Index (ACI) results illustrate barriers to adaptation action, including technical, economic and political issues that reveal inequalities in adaptive capacity among case studies.
Coastal Dune Vegetation of South Korea  [cached]
Lee, Jeom-Sook,Byung-Sun Ihm,Du Sung Cho,Jong-Wook Kim
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2007,
Abstract: We used the Braun-Blanquet method to study coastal dune vegetation of South Korea. Coastalvegetation was monitored in thirty sites from April 2004 to September 2005. Seventeen plant communities wereclassified into five groups as follows: A. Two associations of herbaceous sand dune plants in Salsoleteakomarovii Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Calystegia soldanella community, Lathyrus japonicus-Calystegia soldanellacommunity), B. Twelve associations of herbaceous perennial sand dune plants in Glehnietea littoralis Ohba,Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Carex pumila community, Elymus mollis community, Vitex rotundifolia-Elymus mollis community,Ixeris repens community, Elymus mollis-Ixeris repens community, Lathyrus japonicus community,Messershmidia sibirica community, Glehnia littoralis community, Carex kobomugi community, Calystegia soldanella-Carex kobomugi community, Ishaemum anthephoroides community, Zoysia macrostachya community), C.One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Viticetea rotundifoliae Ohba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973(Vitex rotundifolia community), D. One association of shrubby perennial sand dune plant in Rosetea multifloraeOhba, Miyawaki et Tx. 1973 (Rosa rugosa community), E. The naturalized community (Diodia teres community).
Protecting the Coastline from the Effects of Climate Change: Adaptive Design for the Coastal Areas of Gangneung, Korea  [PDF]
Yumi Lee
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research (JBCPR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbcpr.2015.32011
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to present design strategies to enable coastal areas to adapt to climate change and maintain the coastlines by addressing the environmental and urban issues. Gangneung is a tourist attraction situated on South Korea’s east coast, and there is an urgent need for integrated research on strategies to prevent the loss of sandy beaches and the damage caused by storm surges and high swell. This research has two objectives: The first is to offer an overview and describe the characteristics of exemplary projects carried out to manage the storm damage while maintaining the coastlines. The second is to propose a design model that can be applied to coastal areas susceptible to climate change by analyzing the design strategies and the current conditions of the Gangneung coastal area. In the case of Gangneung, the damage caused by the storm surges and high swells are more severe compared to inundation caused by sea level rise because of the steep slope and deep water. Therefore, adaptive design strategies are mainly focused on accommodation and retreat strategies that consider these characteristics by moving the coastal roads behind the pine forest and raising the coastal buildings to connect the coast to the forest and to prevent coastal erosion. This research has the potential to be used as an exemplary design adaptation for coastal erosion as well as a basis for regulating the land use policy in areas susceptible to flood by establishing guidelines for publicly funded developments, and preparing long-term relocation plans for the existing coastal developments to create a sustainable and resilient future for the coastal areas.
Sea level rise impacts in coastal zones: Soft measures to cope with it  [cached]
Paola Bianca Cisneros Linares
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5931/djim.v8i2.282
Abstract: Sea level rise impacts are projected to cause multiple negative consequences in coastal zones such as coastal erosion, flooding, flood-related health problems, property damage and social-economic impacts. Thus, it is imperative to assess adaptation measures to minimize these devastating projections. Several responsive strategies to sea level rise (i.e. Retreat, Accommodate, Protect) have been developed. Within the Protect Responsive Strategy, ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ adaptation options have been widely implemented in coastal zones. This paper examines several ‘soft’ adaptation options (beach nourishment, dune restoration, afforestation and reforestation, and marine soft engineering technology), which provide interesting alternatives to address sea level rise in coastal zones. Advantages and disadvantages of these soft options are analyzed from an ecological and socio-economic perspective. The paper concludes with some proposed recommendations that could support soft structure approaches in coastal zone areas.
A Multiscale Energetic Diagnosis of the Response of Mokpo Sea to Typhoon Bolaven  [PDF]
Xia Chai, Lin Wang
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2019.78019
Abstract:
The ocean response to typhoon is usually characterized by a cooling on the sea surface. In August 2012, however, a warming (instead of cooling) event occurs in the Yellow Sea outside Mokpo, South Korea, as the typhoon Bolaven (2012) passes. This study gives a brief introduction to this abnormal sea surface warming. It also provides a multiscale energetic diagnosis of the oceanic response to Typhoon Bolaven. We used a recently developed analysis tool named “multiscale window transform” (MWT). Based on the MWT, we also expanded a localized multiscale energy and vorticity analysis (MS-EVA). The fields are reconstructed onto three scale windows: large-scale, abnormal warming-scale, and high frequency tide-scale windows. The results show that the kinetic energy (KE) in the abnormal warming-scale window of the Mokpo area is obviously enhanced during the passage of Bolaven, which can be attributed to three processes: transfer, transport process of KE and wind stress work. At the same time, the large-scale window in the Mokpo area experiences barotropic instabilities with KE transfers from large-scale window to warming-scale window. Besides, the strong wind stress bought by the passage of Bolaven not only inputs a large amount of KE into warming-scale window, but also causes the increase of KE flux convergence.
Cumulative Pressures on Sustainable Livelihoods: Coastal Adaptation in the Mekong Delta  [PDF]
Timothy F. Smith,Dana C. Thomsen,Steve Gould,Klaus Schmitt,Bianca Schlegel
Sustainability , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/su5010228
Abstract: Many coastal areas throughout the world are at risk from sea level rise and the increased intensity of extreme events such as storm surge and flooding. Simultaneously, many areas are also experiencing significant socio-economic challenges associated with rural-urban transitions, population growth, and increased consumption resulting from improving gross regional product. Within this context we explore the viability of proposed adaptation pathways in Soc Trang province, Vietnam — an area of the Mekong Delta experiencing cumulative pressures on coastal livelihoods. A participatory workshop and interviews, using a combination of systems thinking and futures techniques, revealed a shared goal of sustainable livelihoods, which provides an integrated and systemic focus for coastal adaptation strategies. Emphasizing sustainable livelihoods is less likely to lead to maladaptation because stakeholders consciously seek to avoid optimizing particular system elements at the expense of others — and thus engage in broader decision-making frameworks supportive of social-ecological resilience. However, the broad ambit required for sustainable livelihoods is not supported by governance frameworks that have focused on protective strategies (e.g., dyke building, strengthening and raising, to continue and expand agriculture and aquaculture production) at the expense of developing a diverse suite of adaptation strategies, which may lead to path dependencies and an ultimate reduction in adaptive capacity for system transformation.
COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE  [PDF]
Sayidah Sulma,Eko Kusratmoko,Ratna Saraswati
Makara Seri Teknologi , 2012, DOI: 10.7454/mst.v16i2.1516
Abstract: The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA) approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS). Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency) that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.
Analysis of Rice Yield Differences for Inland and Coastal Regions in South Korea  [PDF]
Jonghan Ko,Dong Ha Cho,Jin Kwan Ham,Youn Su Lee
Journal of Agronomy , 2005,
Abstract: Rice production improvement could be obtained with continuous efforts to overcome meteorological factors affecting crop growth. Meteorological factors and rice yield components were compared between inland (Chuncheon city) and coastal (Kangreung city) regions to illustrate the causes of the rice yield decrease in the coastal region. During the rice growing period from 1 May to 15 October, the difference in daily average air temperature between the two regions was not noticeable. However, diurnal range of temperature and solar radiation were higher at Chuncheon than at Kangreung. Average wind velocity was higher at Kangreung. Rice yield components, grains per panicle was lower by 16.7 and ripening ratio was lower by 4.9% at Kangreung. Thus, rice yield was lower at Kangreung (4,392 kg ha-1) by 655 kg ha-1 than at Chuncheon (5,047 kg ha-1). The correlation analyses revealed that the lower rice yield at Kangreung could be attributable mainly to lower diurnal range of air temperature and solar radiation during panicle development and ripening stages which cause the lower number of grains per panicle and the lower grain ripening. The results could provide rice researchers and farmers information about required cultivar characteristics to overcome the meteorological conditions in coastal regions.
Bacterial Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Halophyte Phragmites communis at the Western Coastal Mudflats of Korea
Moon, Ho-Sang,Suhk-Hwan Park,Jong-Ok Ka,Hong-Gyu Song
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2008,
Abstract: This study investigated the population densities and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria, and therhizosphere-to-soil ratios (R/S) in the rhizosphere soil of halophyte Phragmites communis at the western coastalmudflats of Korea. The population densities of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria on the rhizosphere soil of P. communiswere in the range of 3.3 ± 0.9 × 107~1.2 ± 0.5 × 108 cfu g-1 dry weight (d. wt.). Population densities ofamylolytic bacteria ranged from 1.1 ± 0.2 × 106 to 3.0 ± 1.2 × 106 cfu g-1 d. wt., while those of cellulolytic bacteriaand proteolytic bacteria ranged from 5.6 ± 2.3 × 106 to 1.5 ± 0.3 × 107 cfu g-1 d. wt. and from 1.4 ± 0.3 × 106to 3.5 ± 2.3 × 107 cfu g-1 d. wt., respectively. The R/S ratios ranged from 2.26 to 6.89. Genetic (16S DNA) analysisof fifty-one isolates from the roots of P. communis suggested that the dominant species were closely relatedto the γ-proteobacteria group (18 clones) and the α-proteobacteria group (14 clones). We found that halophytespecies and mudflat environment both affected the rhizosphere bacterial communities.
Uncertainties in Measuring Populations Potentially Impacted by Sea Level Rise and Coastal Flooding  [PDF]
Pinki Mondal, Andrew J. Tatem
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048191
Abstract: A better understanding of the impact of global climate change requires information on the locations and characteristics of populations affected. For instance, with global sea level predicted to rise and coastal flooding set to become more frequent and intense, high-resolution spatial population datasets are increasingly being used to estimate the size of vulnerable coastal populations. Many previous studies have undertaken this by quantifying the size of populations residing in low elevation coastal zones using one of two global spatial population datasets available – LandScan and the Global Rural Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). This has been undertaken without consideration of the effects of this choice, which are a function of the quality of input datasets and differences in methods used to construct each spatial population dataset. Here we calculate estimated low elevation coastal zone resident population sizes from LandScan and GRUMP using previously adopted approaches, and quantify the absolute and relative differences achieved through switching datasets. Our findings suggest that the choice of one particular dataset over another can translate to a difference of more than 7.5 million vulnerable people for countries with extensive coastal populations, such as Indonesia and Japan. Our findings also show variations in estimates of proportions of national populations at risk range from <0.1% to 45% differences when switching between datasets, with large differences predominantly for countries where coarse and outdated input data were used in the construction of the spatial population datasets. The results highlight the need for the construction of spatial population datasets built on accurate, contemporary and detailed census data for use in climate change impact studies and the importance of acknowledging uncertainties inherent in existing spatial population datasets when estimating the demographic impacts of climate change.
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