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Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria
Noboru Minakawa, Gabriel O Dida, Gorge O Sonye, Kyoko Futami, Satoshi Kaneko
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-165
Abstract: Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes.In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN) and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN). Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish.There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) movement in 1998, with the goal of decreasing malaria deaths by half by 2010 [1]. Several field trials demonstrated that insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are effective in reducing malaria-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa [2]; thus, ITNs have become a major tool in RBM. In Kenya, ITNs have been mainly distributed to pregnant women and children under five years of age, either free of charge or at subsidized prices, through programmes of the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) [3,4]. Consequently, ITN coverage for children under five years of age has increased rapidly from 7% in 2004 to 67% in 2006; this increase has been associated with a 44% reduction in malaria deaths [5].Nevertheless, a study in western Kenya found that 30% of bed net recipients did not adhere to net use [6,7]. Net use tends to decrease during hot weather. Further, ITNs are sometimes used for other purposes such as wedding dresses or fishing in Zambia [8]. Bed nets have also been observed being used for drying a small zooplanktivorous Dcyprin
River fishing as an economic resource in Late Iberian times: an example from the site of Los Castellones de Céal (Hinojares, Jaén)
Mayoral Herrera, Victorino,Chapa Brunet, Teresa,Pereira Sieso, Juan,Madrigal Belinchón, Antonio
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2000,
Abstract: This paper describes the finding of a group of folded lead sheets in the Ibero-roman level at Castellones de Céal. As they have been traditionally used as weights for fishing nets, the practice at the site of river fishing as an economic resource is inferred. Some other archaeological examples of this activity are also examined. En este trabajo se describen una serie de láminas enrolladas de plomo aparecidas en el nivel iberorromano de Castellones de Céal y que habitualmente son empleadas como lastres en redes de pesca. Se deduce de ello el empleo de la pesca fluvial como recurso económico, revisándose los ejemplos conocidos de esta actividad en el registro arqueológico.
Diversity of marine fishing tackles in Espírito Santo
Ricardo de Freitas Netto,Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto
Biotemas , 2007,
Abstract: During the year 2002, a survey of fishing activity was conducted at 36 landing points within 10 zones through out Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil. This study aimed to describe the fishing modalities employed along the coast, associating them with respective target species and landing points. The fishing gear registered was divided into ‘nets’ and ‘lines’. In the net division, the following assemblages were recorded: (i) seine nets, (ii) trawl nets, and (iii) gillnets. In the line division, the assemblages recorded were: (i) long-lines, and (ii) hand-lines. Among the modalities of fishing tackle, 97.5% were used by artisanal fishermen. Industrial fishing included only “Mexican double rig” trawl net operations. The great variety of modalities may be due to the diversity of target-species found in the region as well as the instability of the activity, leading fishermen to alternate fishing gears according to the different seasons.
Ictiofauna and fishing in the surroundines of Penedo, Alagoas
Emerson Carlos Soares,Arthur Murilo da Silva Sousa Bruno,Jonatha Melo Lemos,Robson Batista dos Santos
Biotemas , 2011,
Abstract: Twenty-eight months of data collection revealed the profile of fishing production in the region of lower S o Francisco. Catches consist of up to approximately 22 species, of which five are the most common: Prochilodus argenteus, Leporinus spp., Anchoviella vaillantii, Centropomus spp. and Eugerres brasilianus. The fishing fleet that is active in the region is made up of non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes and boats, and the vast majority employ the most common types of fishing nets and other fishing gear. The CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort) ranged from 2.5kg/fisherman/day to 4.5kg/fisherman/day during the months analyzed.
High Pressure Falling Sinker Liquid Viscosity Determination without Supplementary Density Data: A New Approach  [PDF]
Minyu Zeng,Carl Schaschke
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/747592
Abstract: Accurate measurement and determination of liquid viscosity data under high pressure conditions requires knowledge of liquid density data. In this study, a high pressure falling sinker-type viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of n-dodecane at elevated pressures up to 132 MPa without supplementary knowledge of liquid density. The viscometer, which involves the downward movement of a cylindrical sinker under the influence of gravity through the liquid contained within a closed tube, avoided the need for density data by repeating the sinker-timing experiments with two geometrically similar but different-sized sinkers thereby allowing the liquid density in the associated formulae to be eliminated. Furthermore, it was possible to subsequently derive liquid density. Both viscosity and density data were compared to published data for which good correlation was found for viscosity. To minimize errors, it is suggested that the two sinkers for such an approach should be of sufficiently differing densities.
Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing  [PDF]
David J. Agnew, John Pearce, Ganapathiraju Pramod, Tom Peatman, Reg Watson, John R. Beddington, Tony J. Pitcher
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004570
Abstract: Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.
Otters and Gillnet Fishing in Lake Malawi National Park
Smith L.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1993,
Abstract: At the south end of Lake Malawi, the small national park is home to spotted-necked and Cape clawless otters. The park contains five enclaved villages that depend on gillnet and longline fishing for their livelihood. The author surveyed the fishermen of Chembe village for fishing methods, gear and problems with animals. Theft of fish from nets by otters was complained of, but there were no reports of otters drowning in gillnets. The author intends to extend his survey to the other four villages in Lake Malawi National Park.
Fishing effort of beach seine  [PDF]
Melnikov Kirill Aleksandrovich
Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Fishing Industry , 2012,
Abstract: The general assessment of fishing effort for beach seines are given, absolute and relative indicators of fishing effort are considered. The mathematical models of the fishing effort for river, lake, sea beach seines and peculiar properties of their practical definition are presented. Particular attention is paid to the economic indicators of fishing effort and an example of their calculations is given.
Diversity of selective and non-selective fishing gear and their impact on the White Nile River, Khartoum State, Sudan
MO Mohammed, ME Ali
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This survey was conducted in Al-Kalakla Fishery (KF) and Jabel Awlia Dam Fishery (JADF) in the White Nile River, Khartoum state to identify the selective and non-selective fishing gear. The results showed the selective fishing gear represented by gill-nets and seine nets (beach nets) in both fisheries with clear variation in use. In KF, fixed nets were dominant (56%) in fishing and followed by drift net (33%), while cast nets were absent in this fishery. In JADF, fixed nets were dominant (63%) in use and followed by cast nets (14%). The average net length was 150 m with width 1.5 m. Non-selective fishing gear was luring gear represented by long-lines (Sareema and Jago). Average length of long-lines was 200 m with 200 hooks in both KF and JADF. Results showed selective tendency of particular mesh sizes of gill-nets in both KF and JADF towards some fish species as: Nile Perch (Lates niloticus L. 1758), Bayad (Bagrus bayad, Forskal, 1775), Kabarous (Bagrus docmak, Forskal, 1775), and large sizes of Dabis (Labeo niloticus, Forskal, 1775) were caught by fixed nets. Bulti (Tilapias), small sizes of Dabis (Labeo niloticus) and Gargur (Synodontis schall, Bloch and Schneider, 1801) were caught mostly by drift nets around breeding grounds and cast nets. Kas (Hydrocynus forskalii, Cuvier 1819), Kawara (Alestes dentex L. 1758) and Shilba (Schilbe intermedius, Ruppel, 1832) were caught by seine nets.
Deep Fishing: Gradient Features from Deep Nets  [PDF]
Albert Gordo,Adrien Gaidon,Florent Perronnin
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Convolutional Networks (ConvNets) have recently improved image recognition performance thanks to end-to-end learning of deep feed-forward models from raw pixels. Deep learning is a marked departure from the previous state of the art, the Fisher Vector (FV), which relied on gradient-based encoding of local hand-crafted features. In this paper, we discuss a novel connection between these two approaches. First, we show that one can derive gradient representations from ConvNets in a similar fashion to the FV. Second, we show that this gradient representation actually corresponds to a structured matrix that allows for efficient similarity computation. We experimentally study the benefits of transferring this representation over the outputs of ConvNet layers, and find consistent improvements on the Pascal VOC 2007 and 2012 datasets.
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