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What does it mean to occupy?  [cached]
Tim Gilman-Sevcik,Matt Statler
continent. , 2012,
Abstract: What work does an occupation do? What affordances are provided by refusing to articulate a platform for redressing public grievances? The authors provide here a brief aesthetic contemplation of the Occupy movement.
The DNR Order: What Does it Mean?
John Y.C. Tsang
Clinical Medicine Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CCRPM.S0
Abstract: As medical science continues to advance, patients nowadays with progressive cardiopulmonary diseases live to older ages. However, they too will eventually reach their unsustainable physiological limit and many die in poor health and discomfort prior to their demise. Regrettably many physicians have not kept pace in dealing with the inevitable end-of- life issues, along with modern techno- logical developments. Without proper guidance, ill-informed patients often face unnecessary anxiety, receive futile resuscitation at the expense of their dignity and public cost which has and will become increasingly overwhelming according to our current demographic trends. In any health care reform, experts often suggest that difficult questions will have to be asked but the solutions are at least partly in the logistical details. From time to time, we see an isolated “Do Not Resuscitate” or DNR order in the chart, which is not always followed by thoughtful discussion on the boundary of care, either simultaneously or known to be followed up soon. This paper attempts to begin asking some of these difficult questions, point out the fallacies of this order and expose the weaknesses in the present state of entitlement by public demand if physicians retreats more from the discussion. The solution does not lie in asking the questions but in changing the practice pattern in real life on a continuous basis, hopefully to be eventually accepted by most, if not all.
University-Community Engagement: What does it mean?  [cached]
Jenny Onyx
Gateways : International Journal of Community Research & Engagement , 2008,
Abstract: This article reflects on the nature of Community-University engagement from a research focus. This entails several steps. In this I start with ‘engagement’ and what that might mean in the context of a University-based research centre. I then reflect on the nature of ‘community’ and the significance of the third sector globally and in Australia. The Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management (CACOM) was the first research centre in Australia, and one of the first in the world designed explicitly to study the Community Sector and its impact. The article outlines one significant research program that emerged from the work of CACOM, namely the story of social capital research. This research was initiated by a request from community partners, and was carried out in collaboration with them. The research program led to several significant research projects which have had a major impact on theory and public policy. It challenges the nature of the University as ‘expert’ and illustrates the co-production of knowledge. The article concludes by discussing the various roles that the University can play within the co-production of research knowledge with the community, as collaborator in the research process itself, as mediator in the development of linking social capital between community and more powerful players, and as the potential site for independent and critical analysis.
Co to znaczy filozofowa ? (What does Philosophizing Mean?)
Aldona Pobojewska
Analiza i Egzystencja , 2011,
Abstract: A philosophy teacher should constantly raise the question about the form of philosophical education. Following this need I undertook the problem “what is the philosophizing” once again. The results of this reflection are the following paper presented. It has two main parts. In the first – I present the philosophizing as rational reasoning which has to do with science and with common sense thinking even. In thesecond part – I point out a set of properties specific to philosophizing.
Reconciliation and the Therapeutic Impulse: What Does It Mean to “Heal”?
Elizabeth S. Dahl
Human Rights & Human Welfare , 2009,
Abstract: Healing is widely seen as an essential component of socio-political reconciliation, helping to promote a more peaceable future after violent conflict. At the same time, however, little is known about what exactly “healing” means to traumatized people and whether particular reconciliation efforts do indeed constitute healing. Instead, social healing is described usually in metaphorical terms, compared to the way an individual body heals, for example. This biomedical language is explored and connected to medical ethics as a way to broach these difficult issues and come to a more systematic understanding of healing processes.
What Does the Population Attributable Fraction Mean?  [cached]
Beverly Levine, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2007,
Abstract: Recent controversy over the disagreement of population attributable fraction estimates for the obesity–total mortality relation has made the concept of attributable fraction visible in both scientific and popular news. Most of the attention in writings on the attributable fraction has focused on technical matters of estimation and on ensuring a causal relationship between exposure and outcome. Yet some of the most illuminating questions about the attributable fraction have to do with another causal question and how the measure is to be interpreted in light of the answer to this question: What interventions are available to cause the assumed reduction in risk among the exposed and the consequent estimated reduction in disease burden? In this paper, I discuss the limitations to the common interpretations of the attributable fraction and argue that these limitations cannot be overcome merely by better statistical modeling or by use of better data sets. They must be addressed through discussion of specific interventions and the hypothesized causal consequences of such specified interventions.
What Does the Nurse Reinvestment Act Mean to You?
Donley, R; Flaherty, M.J.; Sarsfield, E; Taylor, L; Maloni, H; Flanagan, E
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2003,
Abstract: During 2002, the 107th Congress passed landmark legislation, the Nurse Reinvestment Act, P.L. 107-205. This article discusses the specific provisions of P.L. 107-205 within the context of the contemporary literature and the experience of the nursing shortage. The authors ask nurses to examine what the Nurse Reinvestment Act means for their career development. In laying out the anatomy of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, title by title, and section by section, the article presents the Congressional plan for addressing the two faces of the shortage: Nurse Recruitment, Title I, and Nurse Retention, Title II. Under Title I, Nurse Retention, Section 101 presents Definitions used in the public law. Section 102, promotes the development of Public Health Service Announcements about the nursing profession. In the last section of Title I, Section 103, Congress establishes a National Nurse Service Corps. Title II, Nurse Retention, Section 201, is directed toward Building Career Ladders and Retaining Quality Nurses. In Section 202, the development of Comprehensive Geriatric Education is encouraged. Section 203 establishes a Nurse Faculty Loan program, while the last section of Title II, Section 204, mandates reports from the General Accounting Office. The 107th Congress adjourned in November 2002 without acting on the appropriation bill that would have made the Nurse Reinvestment Act a reality. Before the new Congress meets in January 2003, nurses must join with their colleagues to assure adequate funding for P.L. 107-205. The websites of the American Nurses Association (www.nursingworld.org), the National League for Nursing (www.nln.org), The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (www.aacn.org), and the Specialty Nursing Organizations (www.aspanlorg/Spec) provide direction in approaching members of Congress. However, because of the importance of the Nurse Reinvestment Act, nurses must also align themselves with representatives from the many groups who supported the legislation. Readers of this Online Journal in Nursing article should be empowered to contact the American Hospital Association, the Catholic Hospital Association, the American Association of Retired Persons, the American Medical Association, the National Association for Home Care, and the Service Employees International Union for their assistance and the support of their membership in the passage of the FY 2002 Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations Bill.
Teaching and Knowing beyond the Water Cycle: What Does It Mean to Be Water Literate?  [PDF]
Alison J. Sammel, Dena W. McMartin
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.510097
Abstract: Water is an extraordinary thing: it is the key to the chemistry of life. If it wasn’t for water’s unique properties, such as its abilities to dissolve other substances, life could not exist on our planet. Indeed, life was thought to have started in water and currently more than half of the plant and animal species live in water. On land, plants and animals need water for their existence, as the ability of water to disassemble and rearrange other molecules is essential to all daily actions. As humans, our bodies consist of about 80% water when we are babies, to around 60% - 65% as adults. The human brain is about 85% water. Even though this simple polar molecule is one of the most prized possessions in the universe, what do people know about water? What does it mean to be water literate? In this paper, we explore what it means to be water literate in the fields of engineering and in science education. We will compare this theoretical understanding with what engineering and science education students actually know about water. We finish with recommendations to increase student’s literacy in water.

Knowledge base for EFL/ESL educators: What does it mean?  [cached]
Pineda B. Clelia
Profile Issues in Teachers` Professional Development , 2002,
Abstract: Searching for an appropriate definition of what constitutes knowledge base in the teaching profession has become a central focus of attention for researchers, educators, and accreditation agencies during the last decades. The importance of clarifying such a definition has a double value. On the one hand it has become a determinant factor when assessing if teacher preparation programs are meeting the standards for excellence in education. On the other hand, the issue concerns prospective and experienced teachers themselves as they search for opportunities to acquire such knowledge whose ultimate goal is to improve the quality of their practice. But what exactly does this knowledge embrace and more specifically how does it influence an English language teacher? The purpose of this article is to present a synthesis of the most significant responses to these questions and to invite English language teachers to examine their knowledge framework in the hope that this reflection allows for an enrichment of their practice.
What does the global mean OH concentration tell us?
M. G. Lawrence,P. J?ckel,R. von Kuhlmann
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2001,
Abstract: The global mean OH concentration ([OH]GM ) has been used as an indicator of the atmospheric oxidizing efficiency or its changes over time. It is also used for evaluating the performance of atmospheric chemistry models by comparing with other models or with observationally-based reference [OH]GM levels. We contend that the treatment of this quantity in the recent literature renders it problematic for either of these pur-poses. Several different methods have historically been used to compute [OH]GM: weighting by atmospheric mass or volume, or by the reaction with CH4 or CH3CCl3. In addition, these have been applied over different domains to represent the troposphere. While it is clear that this can lead to inconsistent [OH]GM values, to date there has been no careful assessment of the differences expected when [OH]GM is computed using various weightings and domains. Here these differences are considered using four different 3D OH distributions, along with the weightings mentioned above applied over various atmospheric domains. We find that the [OH]GM values computed based on a given distribution but using different domains for the troposphere can result in differences of 10% or more, while different weightings can lead to differences of up to 30%, comparable to the uncertainty which is commonly stated for [OH]GM or its trend. Thus, at present comparing [OH]GM values or trends from different studies does not provide clearly interpretable information about whether the OH amounts are actually similar or not, except in the few cases where the same weighting and domain have been used in both studies. Furthermore, we find that the only direct indicator of the global atmospheric oxidizing efficiency of OH with respect to a particular gas (e.g. CH4 or CH3CCl3 ) is the [OH]GM value weighted by the reaction with that gas; the mass-weighted and volume-weighted [OH]GM values, in contrast, are generally poor indicators of the atmospheric oxidizing efficiency on a global basis (regionally they are better). We recommend that in future studies the [OH]GM value weighted by the reaction with CH4 , along with the CH4 turnover time, be given as the primary indicators of the atmospheric oxidizing efficiency, and that serious evaluations of modeled OH concentrations be done with air mass weighted [OH]GM broken down into atmospheric sub-compartments, especially focusing on the tropics, where the atmospheric oxidizing efficiency is greatest.
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