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Human Tear Fluid Lipidome: From Composition to Function  [PDF]
Antti H. Rantam?ki,Tuulikki Sepp?nen-Laakso,Matej Oresic,Matti Jauhiainen,Juha M. Holopainen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019553
Abstract: We have explored human aqueous tear fluid lipidome with an emphasis to identify the major lipids. We also address the physiological significance of the lipidome. The tears were analysed using thin layer chromatographic, enzymatic and mass spectrometric techniques. To emphasize the physiological aspect of the lipidome, we modelled the spreading of the non-polar tear fluid lipids at air-water interface in macroscopic scale with olive oil and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine. Based on enzymatic analysis the respective concentrations of choline-containing lipids, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters were 48±14, 10±0, and 21±18 μM. Ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry analysis showed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the two most common polar lipids comprising 88±6% of all identified lipids. Triglycerides were the only non-polar lipids detected in mass spectrometric analysis i.e. no cholesteryl or wax esters were identified. The spreading experiments show that the presence of polar lipids is an absolute necessity for a proper spreading of non-polar tear fluid lipids. We provide evidence that polar lipids are the most common lipid species. Furthermore, we provide a physiological rationale for the observed lipid composition. The results open insights into the functional role of lipids in the tear fluid and also aids in providing new means to understand and treat diseases of the ocular surface.
Effect of Feeding High Urea Diets on Metabolites, Hormones and Ionic Composition of Follicular Fluid in Camels
M.A. Alfattah,A.I. Al-Mubarak,T.A. Althnaian,I.F. Albokhadaim,A.K. Al-Haide,A.M. Homeida
Research Journal of Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/rjpharm.2012.1.3
Abstract: It is now established practice to upgrade the protein content of low quality roughage by urea treatment. Administration of urea may result in some adverse effects. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding urea-treated wheat straw diet on the hormonal and metabolic environment of ovarian follicles. Feeding of urea-treated wheat straw to camels resulted in significantly increased concentration of serum and follicular fluid urea compared to their counterparts that fed straw only. The increased urea in follicular fluid was accompanied by decreased concentration of estradiol 17 β and progesterone and increased activity of lactic dehydrogenase in the fluid. This suggested that feeding of high urea diets may affect follicular fluid composition and development of oocyte.
INTERACTION OF BIOMATERIALS CONTAINING CALCIUM HYDROXYAPATITE/ POLY-L-LACTIDE WITH THE SIMULATED BODY FLUID  [PDF]
Marija Vukeli?,?arko Miti?,Miroslav Miljkovi?,Jelena ?ivkovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of biomaterials is to replace a part or a function of the body in a safe, physiologically and economically acceptable way. The process of the reconstruction of bone defects has always been a big problem in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery. Since hydroxyapatite (HAp) was detected as a component, the predominant constituent and the integral element of Mammalian bones, the development of the phospate ceramics as potential materials for implantation was enabled. This study investigated whether and in which way biomaterial calcium hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) interacts with the ionic composition of the human plasma. The simulated body fluid (SBF) is an artificial fluid that has the ionic composition and ionic concentration similar to the human blood plasma. HAp/PLLA was incubated for 1, 2, 3 and 5 weeks in SBF. The surfaces of both treated and untreated materials were analyzed on a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were also exposed to the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), while SBF was submitted to the measuring of pH and electrical conductivity. However, our results indicate that the degradational changes of the material HAp/PLLA in SBF start from the surface of the treated material and that observed changes are the consequence of dissolution of its polymer component and the precipitation of the material similar to hydroxyapatite on its surface. This material shows good characteristics that place it among good candidates for the application in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery.
EFFECTS OF COSMETIC RHINOPLASTY ON NASAL FUNCTION  [PDF]
Ali Nowrouzi,KambizRezaei,ElnazAyatiAfin
Academic Research International , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Regarding to the high frequency of rhinoplasty as a cosmetic surgery, this study was performed to evaluate the changes in nasal dimensions after open rhinoplasty. Methods and Materials: Pre-operative and post-operative nasal dimensions of 36 casesundergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty without preoperative complaint of nasal obstruction were evaluated using acoustic rhinometry. The measured variables were distance to first and second constriction (d1, d2), first and second minimal cross sectional area (MCA1, 2) and nasal volume. Results: The mean age (SD) of cases was 24.63 (4.4) years. Septoplasty was performed in 12 cases (33.3%). After surgery bilateral d1 and both MCA2 decreased significantly; while,significant increase was observed in MCA1 postoperatively. Cases with septoplasty experienced more increase in MCA1 and less constriction in MCA2 postoperatively. In either of groups ofrhinoplasty with and without septoplasty, placing a strut was beneficial for the patients. None of the patients had post-operative nasal obstruction. Conclusions: The cross-sectional area of the nose is a major factor in determining the nasal airflow. Although our findings showed that rhinoplasty generated a mixed effect on rhinometry indices, it did not induce obstructive symptoms for the patients. Septoplasty even in deviated septums increased the nasal airway and placing a strut also improved the nasal function.
The liquid-vapor interface of an ionic fluid  [PDF]
B. Groh,R. Evans,S. Dietrich
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.57.6944
Abstract: We investigate the liquid-vapor interface of the restricted primitive model (RPM) for an ionic fluid using a density-functional approximation based on correlation functions of the homogeneous fluid as obtained from the mean-spherical approximation (MSA). In the limit of a homogeneous fluid our approach yields the well-known MSA (energy) equation of state. The ionic interfacial density profiles, which for the RPM are identical for both species, have a shape similar to those of simple atomic fluids in that the decay towards the bulk values is more rapid on the vapor side than on the liquid side. This is the opposite asymmetry of the decay to that found in earlier calculations for the RPM based on a square-gradient theory. The width of the interface is, for a wide range of temperatures, approximately four times the second moment correlation length of the liquid phase. We discuss the magnitude and temperature dependence of the surface tension, and argue that for temperatures near the triple point the ratio of the dimensionless surface tension and critical temperature is much smaller for the RPM than for simple atomic fluids.
Detection of cerebroespinal fluid nasal fistulae by radionuclide cisternography
Betancourt-Pi?eres Aiken Felípe,Bonnet-P. Igor Iván,Romero-Ramírez Haroldo,Ortiz -Banquez Mauricio
Revista Ciencias Biomédicas , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea is the escape of fluid from the subarachnoidspace into the frontal, sphenoid or ethmoid sinus and the tympanic cavity. Ninetypercent (90%) of cases are traumatic or surgical. Although up to two-thirds arespontaneously resolved, early diagnosis and proper management are important as itis a serious condition where bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity andpotential mortality.Case report: A forty nine year old patient with CSF leak, identifiedby radio isotope cisternography, because of the negativity or failure of computedtomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Conclusion: The importance of radio isotope cisternography to confirm nasal fistula ishighligthed, when it is not demonstrated by other diagnostic imaging modalitie.RESUMEN:Introducción: la rinorrea de líquido cefalorraquídeo es el escape de líquido desde elespacio subaracnoideo hacia el seno frontal, esfenoidal o etmoidal y también hacia elinterior de la caja timpánica. El 90% de los casos son de origen traumático o quirúrgico.A pesar de que hasta las dos terceras partes resuelven de manera espontanea, esimportante el diagnóstico precoz y el manejo adecuado ya que es una condición seria,donde la meningitis bacteriana es la mayor causa de la potencial morbilidad y mortalidad.Caso clínico: paciente de 49 a os con fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo, identificada porcisternografía radio isotópica, ante la negatividad de la tomografía axial computarizada(TAC) y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN).Conclusion: se resalta la importancia de la cisternografía radio isotópica, para confirmarla fistula nasal, cuando no es demostrado por los otras modalidades diagnósticas porimagen.
The Seasonal Variation in Ionic Composition of Pond Water of Lumding, Assam, India  [cached]
Tapashi Gupta,Mrinal Paul
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.8.1.12
Abstract: Ionic composition of water is an important parameter to determine the quality of water. The seasonal variations in TDS and conductivity are mainly due to the ionic composition of water. In the present study, the seasonal variations in TDS and conductivity of freshwater pond of Lumding were studied during the year 2010-2011. A positive correlation between TDS and conductivity was observed
Defective Fluid Secretion from Submucosal Glands of Nasal Turbinates from CFTR-/- and CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 Pigs  [PDF]
Hyung-Ju Cho, Nam Soo Joo, Jeffrey J. Wine
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024424
Abstract: Background Cystic fibrosis (CF), caused by reduced CFTR function, includes severe sinonasal disease which may predispose to lung disease. Newly developed CF pigs provide models to study the onset of CF pathophysiology. We asked if glands from pig nasal turbinates have secretory responses similar to those of tracheal glands and if CF nasal glands show reduced fluid secretion. Methodology/Principal Findings Unexpectedly, we found that nasal glands differed from tracheal glands in five ways, being smaller, more numerous (density per airway surface area), more sensitive to carbachol, more sensitive to forskolin, and nonresponsive to Substance P (a potent agonist for pig tracheal glands). Nasal gland fluid secretion from newborn piglets (12 CF and 12 controls) in response to agonists was measured using digital imaging of mucus bubbles formed under oil. Secretion rates were significantly reduced in all conditions tested. Fluid secretory rates (Controls vs. CF, in pl/min/gland) were as follows: 3 μM forskolin: 9.2±2.2 vs. 0.6±0.3; 1 μM carbachol: 143.5±35.5 vs. 52.2±10.3; 3 μM forskolin + 0.1 μM carbachol: 25.8±5.8 vs. CF 4.5±0.9. We also compared CFΔF508/ΔF508 with CFTR-/- piglets and found significantly greater forskolin-stimulated secretion rates in the ΔF508 vs. the null piglets (1.4±0.8, n = 4 vs. 0.2±0.1, n = 7). An unexpected age effect was also discovered: the ratio of secretion to 3 μM forskolin vs. 1 μM carbachol was ~4 times greater in adult than in neonatal nasal glands. Conclusions/Significance These findings reveal differences between nasal and tracheal glands, show defective fluid secretion in nasal glands of CF pigs, reveal some spared function in the ΔF508 vs. null piglets, and show unexpected age-dependent differences. Reduced nasal gland fluid secretion may predispose to sinonasal and lung infections.
Kinetics of Surfactant Adsorption at Fluid/Fluid Interfaces: Non-ionic Surfactants  [PDF]
H. Diamant,D. Andelman
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i1996-00497-y
Abstract: We present a model treating the kinetics of adsorption of soluble surface-active molecules at the interface between an aqueous solution and another fluid phase. The model accounts for both the diffusive transport inside the solution and the kinetics taking place at the interface using a free-energy formulation. In addition, it offers a general method of calculating dynamic surface tensions. Non-ionic surfactants are shown, in general, to undergo a diffusion-limited adsorption, in accord with experimental findings.
Cytokine Profiles in Nasal Fluid in Patients with Nasal Polyps: A Flow Cytometric Study
Aleksandar Peri , Danilo Vojvodi , Vesna Radulovi
Journal of Medical Biochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10011-010-0003-1
Abstract: Biological markers in nasal fluid provide valuable information on nasal pathophysiology. The aims of this study were to compare the cytokine profiles of nasal fluid in subjects with nasal polyps (NP) and co-morbid asthma and NP patients without asthma and to determine the role of these cytokines in the development of NP. Thirty patients with NP (15 asthmatic and 15 non asthmatic) were included in this prospective study. Nasal secretion samples were collected from nasal cavities of all 30 subjects. The levels of eleven cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ) were measured using flow cytometry. The concentrations of Th2 cytokines IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with NP and asthma compared with subjects with NP without asthma. We also found significantly higher levels of IFN-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in allergic patients with NP and asthma compared with those without asthma. In nonallergic patients with NP and asthma, the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 were significantly higher than in nonallergic patients with NP without asthma. Our results show that the presence of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-5 and IL-6 in patients with NP and asthma is a more prominent feature than in those without asthma that relates to the increased eosinophilic inflammation. We have also found a significant influence of allergy on the cytokine profiles both in asthmatic and nonasthmatic patients.
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