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Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Sedative Effects of Ethylic Extract of Thymelaea lythroides in Wistar Rats  [PDF]
Inssaf Berkiks, Abdelhalem Mesfioui, Abdrahim Kribii, Ali Ouichou, Bouchra Benazzouz, Aboubaker El Hessni
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.43016
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and sedative effect of the ethylic extract of Thymelaea lythroides (Tl) on Wistar rats. The study was based on the gavage administration of the ethylic extract of Tl with different doses (i.e. 200, 400, 500 and 5000 mg/kg), where the toxicity and the sedative activity of the plant were observed and the obtained results were analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by the Bonferroni test. The main results of this study showed that the lethal dose of the ethylic extract of Tl was higher than the 5000 mg/kg dose. Moreover, when compared to the control rats, the animals treated with 5000 mg/kg of the extract exhibited significant reduction in appetite for food and water in the first week. Furthermore, results of the psychotropic test conducted during this study showed visible effects on the exploratory activity of the rats. The dose of 5000 mg/kg was also found to have a significant central nervous system effect; the locomotor activities of the animals decreased in a manner similar to those administered with Zepam as control.
Sedative antidepressants and insomnia
Moraes, Walter André dos Santos;Burke, Patrick Rademaker;Coutinho, Pablo Lorenzon;Guilleminault, Christian;Bittencourt, Aline Gomes;Tufik, Sergio;Poyares, Dalva;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462011000100017
Abstract: objective: the present review addresses the relationship between sleep and depression and how serotonergic transmission is implicated in both conditions. method: literature searches were performed in the pubmed and medline databases up to march 2010. the terms searched were "insomnia", "depression", "sedative antidepressants" and "serotonin". in order to pinpoint the sedative antidepressants most used to treat insomnia, 34 isi articles, mainly reviews and placebo-controlled clinical trials, were selected from 317 articles found in our primary search. results: sleep problems may appear months before the diagnosis of clinical depression and persist after the resolution of depression. treatment of insomnia symptoms may improve this comorbid disease. some antidepressant drugs can also result in insomnia or daytime sleepiness. serotonin (5-ht) demonstrates a complex pattern with respect to sleep and wakefulness that is related to the array of 5-ht receptor subtypes involved in different physiological functions. it is now believed that 5ht2 receptor stimulation is subjacent to insomnia and changes in sleep organization related to the use of some antidepressants. conclusion: some drugs commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression may worsen insomnia and impair full recovery from depression. 5-ht2 receptor antagonists are promising drugs for treatment strategies since they can improve comorbid insomnia and depression.
A Simple and Fast Method for the Production and Characterization of Methylic and Ethylic Biodiesels from Tucum Oil via an Alkaline Route
Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira,Andressa Tironi Vieira,Ant nio Carlos Ferreira Batista,Hugo de Souza Rodrigues,Nelson Ramos Stradiotto
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/238474
Abstract: A simple, fast, and complete route for the production of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from tucum oil is described. Aliquots of the oil obtained directly from pressed tucum (pulp and almonds) were treated with potassium methoxide or ethoxide at 40°C for 40 min. The biodiesel form was removed from the reactor and washed with 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution. A simple distillation at 100°C was carried out in order to remove water and alcohol species from the biodiesel. The oxidative stability index was obtained for the tucum oil as well as the methylic and ethylic biodiesel at 6.13, 2.90, and 2.80 h, for storage times higher than 8 days. Quality control of the original oil and of the methylic and ethylic biodiesels, such as the amount of glycerin produced during the transesterification process, was accomplished by the TLC, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques. The results obtained in this study indicate a potential biofuel production by simple treatment of tucum, an important Amazonian fruit.
Efficacy of Xylazine as a Sedative in Cattle
G.U. Yadav,M.G. Thorat and S.N. Bedarkar
Veterinary World , 2008,
Abstract: Xylazine was given in six clinical cases @ 0.03 mg/kg body weight by intramuscular route, 15 minutes before the actual surgical intervention. The local anaesthetic, Lignocaine HCL 2% was given in all the cases for the desensitization of site of operation. The Clinical parameters were studied before and after 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes of xylazine sedation. The heart rate was reduced from 67.83 + 3.90 to 59.5 + 3.82 per minute. The respiration rate was decreased from 29.16 + 0.61to 29.10 + 1.00 per minute. The rectal temperature was reduced from 101.6 + 0.03 to 101.5 + 0.06 OF. Sedative effect was found to be good without any untoward reaction. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000): 340-340]
Sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine and xylazine in Thoroughbred mares
Christov?o, F.G.;Zamur, G.;Mataqueiro, M.I.;Queiroz-Neto, A.;
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-09352006000600009
Abstract: the sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine (0.1mg/kg) and of xylazine (1.0mg/kg) on thoroughbred mares were studied. sedation was evaluated by quantifying spontaneous locomotor activity (sla) and head height (hh) in animals placed in automated individual behaviour stalls. antinociception was determined utilizing a heat irradiation lamp recording the latency time for the hoof withdrawal reflex (hwrl) and the latency time for the skin twitch reflex (strl) in a randomised block design with 10 replicates. comparison of the sedative effects of romifidine and of xylazine on sla showed a faster effect for xylazine. regarding the sedative effect of the substances based on hh, romifidine caused a longer-lasting effect. romifidine caused an increase in hwrl and strl, and xylazine, an agent known for its analgesic effect, did not have an antinociceptive effect based on strl result. the antinociceptive effect of romifidine was more pronounced than the xylazine effect.
A comparative study of sedative and anxiolytic effects of the Hypericum perforatumin and diazepam on rats
Ali Rezaei,Kamyar Rezaei-Dorostkar,Mehrdad Pashazadeh,Changiz Ahmadizadeh
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Hypericum perforatum or St. John’s wort is a plant known as a Raee flower (or Hypericum) in Persian. Hyperisin and Hyperforin are the main constituents of this plant extract that are connected to sigma opioid and GABA receptors. Its various pharmacological effects, such as analgesia, sedation, anti-spasm, anti-convulsion, anti-anxiety, and anti-bacteria have already been known. Materials and Method: To conduct the study, the authors prepared the hydro alcohol extract taken from the aerial organ of the plant. Then, different groups of female Wistar rats, which were almost equal in age and weight, received doses of 500mg/kg and 250mg/kg of the extract, 1.2mg/kg of diazepam, and di-methyl solphoxid (as placebo) with equal volumes. The intraperitoneal injections were administered 15min before assessing the sedative/hypnotic effects (i.e. duration of the induced sleep by ketamin with a dose of 40mg/kg) and the anxiolytic effects by means of the elevated plus maze.Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase (p= 0.00) both in the duration of the induced sleep by ketamin and in the time lapsed in the open arms in the experimental groups with high and low doses of the extract.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract of Hypericum perforatum with a dose of 500mg/kg could have sedative, preanaesthetic, and anxiolytic effects.
Sedative and Anticonvulsant Properties of the Decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae)
Elisabeth Ngo Bum,Neteydji Sidiki,Taiwe,Paul Fasutin Seke Etet,Frededic Maidawa,Silvere Vincent Rakotonirina,Alice Rakotonirina
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca, a plant used in traditional medicine in Africa for many diseases, possesses anticonvulsant and sedative activity in mice. This decoction protected mice against strychnine- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. But Balanites aegyptiaca decoction had no effect against picrotoxin-induced seizures. In the other side, the decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca potentiated sleep-induced by diazepam. The total sleep time of the control group was multiply by 4 in the presence of the decoction at a dose of 1000 mg /kg (from 12 to 59 min). With these effects, the decoction of Balanites aegyptiaca L. seem to posses sedative and anticonvulsant properties that might explain its use as a traditional medicine for epilepsy in Africa.
Sedative/Analgesic Efficacy of Medetomidine in Goats  [PDF]
Amir Bukhsh Kalhoro* and Abdul Qayoom Memon
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Sedative and analgesic efficacy of three intravenous doses of medetomidine, i.e., 4, 5 and 6 μg/kg BW was studied in six goats. A randomized cross over experimental design was used. Onset of sedation, onset of optimal sedation, duration of optimal sedation and degree of sedation were measured and found to be dose dependent. Dose 4 μg/kg produced light sedation whereas 5 and 6 μg/kg produced moderate and deep sedation, respectively. Total duration of sedation was 60.58±2.21, 83.50±3.75 and 104.33±4.30 min after administration of 4, 5 and 6μg/kg medetomidine, respectively. The duration of sedation was significantly (P≤0.01) longer with 6 μg/kg as compared to 4 and 5μg/kg. Onset and duration of analgesia were dose dependent. The mean values for onset of analgesia were 25.00±3.00, 24.16±1.74 and 12.00±1.50 min and duration of analgesia was 8.00±2.00, 17.16±1.81 and 31.50±2.61 min after administration of 4, 5 and 6 μg/kg medetomidine, respectively. Skin analgesia and muscle relaxation were produced in all animals with higher doses (5 and 6 μg/kg) and only in 2 animals with 4 μg/kg of medetomidine. It was concluded that medetomidine is a highly potent drug which can be effectively used in the dose rates of 4 to 5μg /kg I/V for sedation in goats.
Comparative Study of Sedative, Pre-Anesthetic and Anti-Anxiety Effect of Origanum majorana Extract with Diazepam on Rats
Ali Rezaie,Behboud Jafari,Ghafour Mousavi,Mehrdad Nazeri,Amirreza Ebadi,Changiz Ahmadeh,Elmira Habibi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2011.611.614
Abstract: In the present study, sedative and anti-anxiety drugs such as chemical drugs are used for the sedation and anti-anxiety but due to their side effects and economical issues, the significance of research on finding sedative and anti-anxiety drugs with less side effects and their ability to substitute these synthetic drugs and substituting newer sedation and anti-anxiety compounds is obvious. Origanum majorana is one of the plants that have the effect sedation and anti-anxiety. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of sedative, pre-anesthetic and anti-anxiety of Origanum majorana with diazepam in rats to different groups of male Wistar rats received herbal extract Origanum majorana with doses (100, 200, 400 mg kg-1, IP) and diazepam with dose of (1/2 mg kg-1, IP) and dimethyl sulfoxide with the equal volume. About 30 min after assessing the relift/sleep inducing effect (induced sleep duration by ketamine 40 mg kg-1, IP) anti-anxiety effects (using elevated plus maze). The results show meaningful increase in the period of the sleep that had been made with ketamine and also meaningful increase in the spend time at open arms in the patient group with the previous. The results show that the dose of extract Origanum majorana 200 mg kg-1 relieving effects of sedative, pre-anesthetic and anti-anxiety and before.
Ahir Chetan D,Santani D. D,Dalal Mittal V,Gajera Paresh L
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of present study is to evaluate the sedative activity of aqueous extract of Vigna trilobata (L) verdc. Leaves using experimental animal models. In the present study aqueous extract of the Vigna trilobata leaves (AEVTL) was used to investigate the sedative activity using Rotarod apparatus and Photoactometer in mice at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight and compared to standard diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.). The result obtained from this study revealed that AEVTL possessed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) sedative activity at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by reducing locomotor activity and fall off time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The results of this study justify the use of the leaves as sedative in traditional medicine. Further studies may be directed at characterizing the bioactive ingredients that are responsible for the observed sedative activity in the plant.
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