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Interactive Effects of Elevated [CO2] and Soil Water Stress on Leaf Morphological and Anatomical Characteristic of Paper Birch Populations  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.55084

The leaf morphological and stomatal characteristics of four paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) populations, grown at four treatment conditions of carbon dioxide [CO2] and soil water levels were investigated to determine whether future increases in atmospheric [CO2] and water deficit affected the leaf characteristics. The populations from Cussion Lake, Little Oliver, Skimikin and Wayerton were grown for 12 weeks under ambient (360 ppm) and elevated (720 ppm) [CO2] at both high and low water levels. The populations significantly differed in leaf area and stomatal characteristics due to the interaction effects of [CO2], water levels and population differences. Most leaf morphological characteristics and stomatal density varied due to the effects of [CO2] and/or populations, but not due to the effect of water levels. Although elevated [CO2] alone barely affected stomatal area of the birch populations, simultaneous elevated [CO

Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the leaf anatomical characteristics of eleven species

HAN Mei,JI Cheng-Jun,ZUO Wen-Yun,HE Jin-Sheng,

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The leaf anatomical features of 11 species grown in two greenhouses with strictly controlled temperature gradients and temperature CO_2 gradients was studied. The palisade parenchyma thickness, the spongy parenchyma thickness and the total leaf thickness were studied and analyzed with the purpose of demonstrating the effect of elevated CO_2 and temperature on the leaf anatomical characteristics. The results show that with the increase of temperature, the leaf thickness of C_4 species increases while the leaf thickness of C_3 species shows no constant changes; with the increase of CO_2, seven out of nine C_3 species increase their total leaf thickness, while the C_4 species decrease their leaf thickness. As for the change-trend on the multi-grades, plants exhibit linear or curve change. With the increase of temperature or both temperature and CO_2, on the 11 chosen species, different plants, even different branches in one plant, the leaf thickness varies greatly. These facts illustrate that the effect of increasing CO_2 and temperature on plants is species-specific. Since plant structures are correlated with their functions, the changes in anatomical leaf characteristics due to the elevated temperature and CO_2 may lead to functional differences.
Elevated CO2 changes the moderate shade tolerance of yellow birch seedlings

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2007,
Abstract: To demonstrate the existence of light thresholds in plant growth and to examine the effects of elevated CO2 on the shade tolerance of a tree species, an experiment consisting of a completely randomized design for a total of 96 yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) seedlings was conducted with 3 light levels (2.9%, 7.7%, 26.1% of full sunlight) × 2 CO2 levels (350 and 700±10 ppm) with 4 replications in a phytotron. The study proved that thresholds exist and they vary in different plant organs. In ambient CO2, the thresholds were 13.3%, 18.7%, 15.0%, 15.2%, and 15.6% of full sunlight for stem, leaf, root, total plant biomass, and the averaged value, respectively. In 700 ppm CO2, the corresponding thresholds were 16.7%, 21.3%, 18.1%, 21.7% and 19.5% for stem, leaf, root, total plant biomass, and the averaged value, respectively. The lowest threshold in the stem is an indicator of the minimal light intensity for regular growth for seedlings of this species. Below this threshold, light-stressful growth occurs. The result of a paired t-test indicated that the thresholds in elevated CO2 were significantly higher than in ambient CO2. This suggests that yellow birch will lose its moderate shade tolerance, evolutionally becoming a shade-intolerant species, and that it may become more difficult for it to naturally regenerate in the future.
Leaf Morphological and Stomatal Variations in Paper Birch Populations along Environmental Gradients in Canada  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511166

Variations in leaf morphology and stomatal characteristics have been extensively studied at both inter- and intraspecific levels although not explicitly in the context of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh) populations. The birch populations might have developed the leaf variations that allowed them to adapt to a wide climatic gradient. Therefore, in this study we examined variations in the leaf morphological and stomatal characteristics of sixteen paper birch populations collected across Canada and grown in a common garden. We also examined the relationship between these leaf characteristics and the climate of the population’s origin. Significant genotypic differences were found in the leaf characteristics measured among the birch populations. Thus, we expected that the observed leaf variations may be partly explained as natural diversity in the birch due to differences in environment of origin. We noticed that along mean annual precipitation and aridity gradients, hair density on leaf adaxial surface had decreased whereas stomatal density increased significantly. Our results showed that the populations with larger leaf area and specific leaf area had higher hair density but low stomatal density. These leaf characteristics provided a structural basis in reducing water loss through leaves and increasing water use efficiency. A trade-off between stomatal area and density resulted in this study might be a strategy of the birch to balance stomatal conductance in decreased precipitation.

Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and O3 on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera): Reproductive Fitness  [cached]
Joseph N. T. Darbah,Mark E. Kubiske,Neil Nelson,Elina Oksanen
The Scientific World Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2007.42
Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 Concentration and Irrigation on Photosynthetic Parameters and Yield of Maize in Northeast China  [PDF]
Fanchao Meng, Jiahua Zhang, Fengmei Yao, Cui Hao
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098318
Abstract: Maize is one of the major cultivated crops of China, having a central role in ensuring the food security of the country. There has been a significant increase in studies of maize under interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and other factors, yet the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and increasing precipitation on maize has remained unclear. In this study, a manipulative experiment in Jinzhou, Liaoning province, Northeast China was performed so as to obtain reliable results concerning the later effects. The Open Top Chambers (OTCs) experiment was designed to control contrasting [CO2] i.e., 390, 450 and 550 μmol·mol?1, and the experiment with 15% increasing precipitation levels was also set based on the average monthly precipitation of 5–9 month from 1981 to 2010 and controlled by irrigation. Thus, six treatments, i.e. C550W+15%, C550W0, C450W+15%, C450W0, C390W+15% and C390W0 were included in this study. The results showed that the irrigation under elevated [CO2] levels increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize. Similarly, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased with elevated [CO2], but irrigation have a positive effect on increased of them at each [CO2] level, resulting in the water use efficiency (WUE) higher in natural precipitation treatment than irrigation treatment at elevated [CO2] levels. Irradiance-response parameters, e.g., maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pnmax) and light saturation points (LSP) were increased under elevated [CO2] and irrigation, and dark respiration (Rd) was increased as well. The growth characteristics, e.g., plant height, leaf area and aboveground biomass were enhanced, resulting in an improved of yield and ear characteristics except axle diameter. The study concluded by reporting that, future elevated [CO2] may favor to maize when coupled with increasing amount of precipitation in Northeast China.
Interactive Informed Consent: Randomized Comparison with Paper Consents  [PDF]
Michael C. Rowbotham, John Astin, Kaitlin Greene, Steven R. Cummings
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058603
Abstract: Informed consent is the cornerstone of human research subject protection. Many subjects sign consent documents without understanding the study purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and their rights. Proof of comprehension is not required and rarely obtained. Understanding might improve by using an interactive system with multiple options for hearing, viewing and reading about the study and the consent form at the subject’s own pace with testing and immediate feedback. This prospective randomized study compared the IRB-approved paper ICF for an actual clinical research study with an interactive presentation of the same study and its associated consent form using an iPad device in two populations: clinical research professionals, and patients drawn from a variety of outpatient practice settings. Of the 90 participants, 69 completed the online test and survey questions the day after the session (maximum 36 hours post-session). Among research professionals (n = 14), there was a trend (p = .07) in the direction of iPad subjects testing better on the online test (mean correct = 77%) compared with paper subjects (mean correct = 57%). Among patients (n = 55), iPad subjects had significantly higher test scores than standard paper consent subjects (mean correct = 75% vs 58%, p < .001). For all subjects, the total time spent reviewing the paper consent was 13.2 minutes, significantly less than the average of 22.7 minutes total on the three components to be reviewed using the iPad (introductory video, consent form, interactive quiz). Overall satisfaction and overall enjoyment slightly favored the interactive iPad presentation. This study demonstrates that combining an introductory video, standard consent language, and an interactive quiz on a tablet-based system improves comprehension of research study procedures and risks.
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Litter Chemistry and Subsequent Invertebrate Detritivore Feeding Responses  [PDF]
Matthew W. Dray, Thomas W. Crowther, Stephen M. Thomas, A. Donald A’Bear, Douglas L. Godbold, Steve J. Ormerod, Susan E. Hartley, T. Hefin Jones
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086246
Abstract: Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder) or Betula pendula (silver birch) trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (ambient +200 ppm) CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i) two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment (‘choice’), or (ii) one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone (‘no-choice’). Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species’ responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing–a key ecosystem function–under atmospheric change.
Leaf morphological variation among paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) genotypes across Canada  [PDF]
Anjala Pyakurel, Jian R. Wang
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.34033

Variations in leaf morphological characteristics have been extensively studied at both interand intraspecific levels although not explicitly on paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh). Paper birch populations might have considerable genotypic and leaf morphological variations that have allowed them to inhabit wide environmental gradients. In this study, we analyzed variations in leaf morphological characteristics in 23 paper birch populations collected across Canada and grown in a greenhouse. Furthermore, we examined whether the variations in leaf morphological characteristics observed were related to the climate of the population’s origin. We found significant genotypic differences in all leaf morphological characteristics (p < 0.05) measured among the birch populations. Thus, we expected that the morphological variations in birch might be related to natural diversity in birch populations due to environmental differences at habitat origin. Principal component analysis (PCA) reduced thirteen leaf morphological variables to five principal components (PC) explaining 84.74% of the total variance in the original data. PCs accumulated with specific leaf area, petiole and leaf width were positively related to latitudinal, longitudinal, and elevational gradients at the population’s origin. Unpredictably, these PCs were significantly negatively correlated to precipitation and aridity index at the origin. Thus, we analyzed if correlations within leaf morphological characteristics had supported the birch populations to acclimate and produce unpredictable relations with the environment of origin. Our results showed that the populations originated in limited precipitation (during growing season) had large leaf width and petiole size but low leaf hairs on adaxial surface. Thus, all these leaf morphological features provide a basis for the birch to reduce water loss from leaves and balance water use efficiency in reduced precipitation. Furthermore, the leaf characteristics measured may also

Lizi Li,Sanghoon Lee,Haklae Lee,Hyejung Youn
BioResources , 2011,
Abstract: The adsorption of xylan on pulp fibers improves the strength properties of paper. However, the optical properties are decreased significantly. The objective of our research was to bleach hardwood kraft pulp with adsorbed birch xylan by hydrogen peroxide and study the effect of bleaching parameters on paper properties. The bleaching parameters studied included bleaching temperature, time, initial pH as well as MgSO4 dosage. The optical properties (whiteness, brightness, opacity) and physical properties (tensile index, tearing index, bulk) of handsheets made from the pulp bleached with different process variables were measured. The results showed that better optical properties were obtained with higher bleaching temperature, longer bleaching time, and more MgSO4 dosage. Bleaching from an initial pH of 11 provided the highest brightness value. On the other hand, strength properties were improved with decreasing of the bleaching temperature, and increasing the initial pH and MgSO4 dosage. The relationship between strength properties and bleaching time varied depending on bleaching temperature. According to the results, both good mechanical properties and optical properties could be achieved when the operating parameters were controlled properly. Therefore hydrogen peroxide bleaching was proved to be a suitable method for bleaching hardwood kraft pulp with adsorption of birch xylan.
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