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Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica: Baseline CO2 Emissions from Boat Tours into the Channels System  [PDF]
Irene Alvarado-Van der Laat
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2014.51003

Tortuguero National Park located on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica is only accessible by boat or air and attracts an average of 130,000 visitors yearly. The main activity of the park is the turtle nesting and hatching along the beaches as well as the observation of wildlife in the channel sys- tem. This makes it important to study the CO2 emitted by the tours operating in the park. To cal- culate these emissions researchers gathered data on engine type, horsepower and duration of idle while boats waited to buy tickets at the park entrance. The study found that tour operators emit- ted a minimum of 5.5 tons of CO2 per year into the atmosphere and water. It is likely that the park is more polluted than immediately evident.

Tourists and turtles: Searching for a balance in Tortuguero, Costa Rica  [cached]
Meletis Zoe,Harrison Emma
Conservation & Society , 2010,
Abstract: Tourism is seen as an important part of the turtle conservation ′toolbox′ that can be used to (1) raise awareness about sea turtles, (2) provide funding for conservation and management, and (3) create ′alternative livelihoods′ and revenues for communities who engage(d) in direct consumption or sale of sea turtle products. With some exceptions, however, few studies of sea turtle tourism dedicate adequate attention to the wants, needs, and perceptions of tourists (exceptions include Wilson & Tisdell 2001; Smith 2002; Gray 2003; Meletis 2007; Ballantyne et al. 2009). In this paper, we focus on tourist perceptions of turtle tours in Tortuguero, Costa Rica, home to Tortuguero National Park (TNP; est. 1975) and among the oldest turtle tour systems in the world. In 2004, the tour system was changed to mitigate potential negative impacts of tourist activity on nesting turtles. Whereas tourists and their guides once walked the beach ′looking′ for nesting turtles, they now wait behind the beach and are radioed by TNP-affiliated ′turtle spotters′ when turtles are ′ready′ to be viewed. Impact mitigation was the primary motivation for this alteration to the tour system; resulting changes in the nature of the tour were not central considerations. Are the tourists enjoying the new tour format? Do they like/dislike the more passive waiting? Do the tourists know about, and understand the new tour system? In this paper, we address questions such as these, using a sample of 147 tourist surveys collected in 2008. We designed our survey to (1) add to the existing data on tourism in Tortuguero, (2) collect data on tourist perceptions of the (new) tour system, and (3) gauge tourist awareness of the Turtle Spotter Program (TSP) and the reasons for the new turtle tour system. The main purpose of this study was to collect data requested by interested stakeholders, and to consider the results with respect to implications for the future of turtle tour management in the area.
Solar-Electric Boat  [PDF]
Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo, Donato Papalillo, Andrea Martocchia, Giuseppe Makary
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2012.22015
Abstract: The aim of this paper is the design of a Solar-Electric Boat for tourists’ transport along the coast, in the rivers, in the lakes. Our idea is to define the project guidelines for the realization of a zero impact boat. This paper illustrates the practical new technologies (naval architecture small craft design, mechanical and electrical design), rational design and engineering approach, safety and reliability methods used in solar boats. In our project, the boat is powered by lithiumion batteries that can be charged at any time by the photovoltaic generator placed on a flat top structure. The project is designed for brief trip around coast, where the public transport becomes very polluting during summer. Starting from the consideration that this boat is used during sunny weather, it is possible to know the boat’s energy demand and proceed with the design of a suitable electric boat and of the energy storage/management system. It is also proposed an innovative management of charge/discharge of the batteries. With this management, we have optimized the use and prolonged the time of life of the batteries during the navigation and the control of the real autonomy of it.
On the number of open knight's tours  [PDF]
Héctor Cancela,Ernesto Mordecki
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We review the state of the art in the problem of counting the number open knight tours, since the publication in internet of a computation of this quantity.
Autonomous Surveying Boat  [PDF]
Sajid Ullah
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: The fresh water reservoirs are one of the main power resources of Pakistan.These water reservoirs are in the form of Tarbela Dam, Mangla Dam, Bhasha Dam,and Warsak Dam. To estimate the current power capability of the Dams, the statistical information about the water in the dam has to be clear and precise. For the purpose of water management monthly or yearly survey of the dams required. One of the important parameter is to find the water level of water, which can help us in finding the pressure and flow of water in dams. The existing surveying systems have some problems, i.e., risky, errors in measurement and sometimes expensive. Our project has tried a lot to overcome these flaws and to develop more economical, safe and accurate system for finding depth values of dams and ponds. The key purpose of Our Project Autonomous Surveying Boat is to have it log water depths along a predefined set of points. The Autonomous Surveying Boat floats in water according to predefined path, getting the coordinates from GPS Sensor and direction is controlled by using Magnetometer Sensor. It stores its data on SD card as a text file for later readings. The boat can also be used to find the average capacity of the dam. The average depth is calculated from the measured depth values at different set points of the dam. The actual length of the dam is determined by the magnetometer. The numbers of surveys over the time can help us in finding the silting ratio in dams.For square dams the length and width of the dam are measured and the average depth, then using these three parameters we can estimate the average capacity of the dam.The boat is scalable for furthered modification if needed.
The Topology of Knight's Tours on Surfaces  [PDF]
Bradley Forrest,Kara Teehan
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We investigate the homotopy classes of closed knight's tours on cylinders and tori. Specifically, we characterize the dimensions of cylindrical chessboards that admit closed knight's tours realizing the identity of the fundamental group and those that admit closed tours realizing a generator of the fundamental group. We also produce analogous results for toroidal chessboards.
Les tours de Paris
Roger Brunet
M@ppemonde , 2010,
Abstract: De nombreuses tours de bureaux ou d’appartements ont été érigées à Paris et alentour dans la décennie 1965-1975, puis le mouvement s’est presque arrêté, se limitant à des rénovations. Le centre de la capitale a très peu de tours, et la construction s’est faite surtout par groupes compacts (Front de Seine, Olympiades, Défense, etc.). Le mouvement a été relancé à partir de 2005, dans une ambiance de spéculation et d’innovation architecturale, mais se trouve limité par l’instabilité des situations financières.
Generalised Knight's Tours  [PDF]
Nina Kam?ev
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: The problem of existence of closed knight's tours in $[n]^d$, where $[n]=\{0, 1, \dots, n-1\}$, was recently solved by Erde, Gol\'{e}nia, and Gol\'{e}nia. They raised the same question for a generalised, $(a, b)$ knight, which is allowed to move along any two axes of $[n]^d$ by $a$ and $b$ unit lengths respectively. Given an even number $a$, we show that the $[n]^d$ grid admits an $(a, 1)$ knight's tour for sufficiently large even side length $n$.
Store Tours: Accessing Museums’ Stored Collections
Lucinda G. Caesar
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2007, DOI: 10.5334/pia.286
Abstract: In the Science Museum, London, it is envisioned that the future of the collection lies with the creation of an open storage centre, a means to ensure that its stored collections become a permanent way of engagement with the public. Access to stored collections is a topical subject, and open storage has been adopted by many museums as an access strategy. This report explores the use of a particular interpretation method: guided tours of the stores. Are store tours a worthwhile investment? Should store tours be used as an interpretative medium for accessing stored collections on a national level? Are store tours the best tool to engage the public in stored collections? What do store tours provide as a means of accessing or promoting engagement in museum’s stored collections? Are they indeed the access tool of the future? This paper reviews these questions, drawing on the data from a series of store tours hosted in 2004 and 2005 by the Science Museum, London.
Attire in Ammianus and Gregory of Tours  [PDF]
Newbold, Ron F.
Studia Humaniora Tartuensia , 2005,
Abstract: The fourth century historian of the Roman Empire, Ammianus Marcellinus, focuses on attire and accessories that signify high rank, status and authority. In his narrative there are a number of cases where clothing and insignia feature in illegitimate or dangerous aspirations to power, and brought destruction upon the aspirants, or threatened to. An ongoing concern for Ammianus is how appropriately attired people are. He scorns the pretentious clothing of Roman nobles and bishops, took pleasure in retailing the reaction of the emperor Julian to his overdressed barber, and considered the craven Epigonius to be a philosopher only in his attire. Gallus Caesar's forced change from high to low status clothing portended his imminent execution. In his ethnographic excurses, Ammianus uses the attire of foreign peoples to define their otherness. The sixth century historian of Merovingian Gaul, Gregory of Tours, is largely oblivious to fine apparel unless it is the shining vestments of saints and angels. Humble and harsh clothing, such as skins and hair shirts denote spiritual commitment or reorientation, a change of "habit", a declaration that can be stripped away by enemies and persecutors while leaving the faith itself intact. Real ascetics eschew footwear in winter. The most striking feature of clothing in Gregory is the magical powers, to heal or punish, that it can absorb from the bodies of holy wearers. In both authors, clothes and character may be mismatched but Ammianus does not share Gregory's fondness for simple and uncomfortable attire, and certainly not his belief that a few threads from the clothing of someone long dead can work miracles.
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