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Effect of Light on Stability of Anthocyanins in Ethanolic Extracts of Rubus fruticosus  [PDF]
Elizabeth Contreras-Lopez, Araceli Casta?eda-Ovando, Luis Guillermo González-Olivares, Javier A?orve-Morga, Judith Jaimez-Ordaz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.56058
Abstract:

Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) is one of the fruit with the highest concentration of anthocyanins; however, its use is limited for making jams, jellies and liqueur, and recently, fruit concentrates in combination with pomegranate, blueberry and grape. One of the main problems with these pigments is their poor stability in solution, mainly in beverages as liqueur and juices, which depends on factors such as chemical structure, pH, temperature, light, water activity, and presence of oxygen. The effect of light on total monomeric anthocyanins content as well as the degradation rates and browning of two blackberry ethanolic extracts is to establish the conditions for storage of liqueur without adding artificial food coloring. The initial content of anthocyanins on extract without storage was 106 mg?l-1. The study assessed the light irradiation effect on the anthocyanins of blackberry ethanolic extract. The anthocyanins degradation followed the second order reaction kinetics with respect to illuminance of the light source. The t1/2 value at high illuminance (3968.30 lx) was 28.20 hours.

Estabilidade de compostos bioativos em polpa congelada de amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus) cv. Tupy
Jacques, Andresa Carolina;Pertuzatti, Paula Becker;Barcia, Milene Teixeira;Zambiazi, Rui Carlos;Chim, Josiane Freitas;
Química Nova , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422010000800019
Abstract: rubus fruticosus (rosaceae), popularly known as blackberry, is a highly nutritious fruit, rich in bioactive compounds. their stability during processing has been the focus of several studies. this work describes the evaluation of the stability of the main phytochemicals of pulp from blackberry cv. tupy, stored under different temperature conditions for six months. the storage at -10 °c was not sufficient to cause significant changes in total phenolics content, anthocyanins content and antioxidant capacity during two months of storage. likewise, at -18 °c, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity were kept for four months, but total anthocyanins and β-carotene content were kept for two and six months of storage, respectively.
Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses  [PDF]
Molecules , DOI: 10.3390/molecules190810998
Abstract: Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.
Enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de Rubus fruticosus tratadas com AIB Rooting of stems and root cuttings of Rubus fruticosus using IBA
Maraísa Hellen Tadeu,Rafael Pio,Andrei Spaziani Tiberti,Madeleine Alves de Figueiredo
Revista Ceres , 2012,
Abstract: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de Rubus fruticosus, tratadas com AIB. Estacas radiculares e caulinares dessa espécie foram coletadas em mar o, tendo posteriormente suas bases tratadas com diferentes concentra es de ácido indolbutírico (AIB, 1000, 2000, 3000 e 4000 mg L-1) por 10 segundos. O tratamento controle foi baseado somente no uso da água. As estacas caulinares foram enterradas a 2/3 de seu comprimento, em posi o vertical, e as radiculares foram totalmente enterradas, na horizontal, utilizando-se a vermiculita como substrato, em telado com sombreamento de 50%. Após 60 dias, p de-se concluir que as estacas caulinares apresentaram melhores resultados para forma o das mudas, n o se devendo tratá-las com AIB. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the rizogenic potential for stems and root cuttings of Rubus fruticosus treated with indolbutyric acid. Roots and stems cuttings of this specie were collected in March, and had their basal portions treated with different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA) (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg L-1) for 10 seconds. The control treatment used only water. The stem cuttings were planted with 2/3 of their length in the vertical position and the root cuttings were totally covered in the horizontal position, using vermiculite as substrate, in screenhouse with 50% of shade. After 60 days, the stem cuttings presented better results for seedling formation, without IBA.
Enraizamento de estacas caulinares e radiculares de Rubus fruticosus tratadas com AIB
Tadeu, Maraísa Hellen;Pio, Rafael;Tiberti, Andrei Spaziani;Figueiredo, Madeleine Alves de;Souza, Filipe Bittencourt Machado de;
Revista Ceres , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2012000600021
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to evaluate the rizogenic potential for stems and root cuttings of rubus fruticosus treated with indolbutyric acid. roots and stems cuttings of this specie were collected in march, and had their basal portions treated with different concentrations of indolbutyric acid (iba) (1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg l-1) for 10 seconds. the control treatment used only water. the stem cuttings were planted with 2/3 of their length in the vertical position and the root cuttings were totally covered in the horizontal position, using vermiculite as substrate, in screenhouse with 50% of shade. after 60 days, the stem cuttings presented better results for seedling formation, without iba.
Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins from European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) Fruit Extracts. Effects of Temperature, pH and Storage Solvent  [PDF]
Bianca Moldovan,Lumini?a David,Cristian Chi?bora,Claudia Cimpoiu
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011655
Abstract: European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) fruits are well known for their biological properties, of which some are due to the presence of anthocyanins in the berries. Current literature provides little information concerning these fruits. The stability of anthocyanins from Viburnum opulus fruits, in aqueous and ethanolic extracts, stored under darkness for 7 days at different temperatures (2 °C, 37 °C and 75 °C) and pH values (pH = 3 and 7), was studied here. The lowest stability was showed by the anthocyanins from the water extract stored at 75 °C and pH = 7, with half-life and constant rate values of 1.98 h and 0.3488 h?1, respectively. The results showed a good correlation between the total anthocyanin content (determined using the pH differential method) and the time of storage, with determination coefficients varying from R2 = 0.9298 to R2 = 0.9971. Results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under all investigated conditions.
Diversidade e flutua??o populacional de ácaros (Acari) em amora-preta (Rubus fruticosus, Rosaceae) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil
Marchetti, Márla Maria;Ferla, Noeli Juarez;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212011000100005
Abstract: mites of the families eriophyidae, tarsonemidae and tetranychidae are considered of economic importance in the blackberry (rubus fruticosus, rosaceae), raspberry and other small fruit crops. this study was conducted from november of 2001 to october of 2003 on brazos, caigangue and tupy cultivars in ilópolis municipality, state of rio grande do sul, to describe the mitefauna and its population fluctuation in blackberry crops. a total of 36,094 mites belonging to 12 families was collected. most of the mites belong to diptilomiopidae (80.9%) and tetranychidae (13.9%), composed predominantly of phytophagous species. chakrabartiella sp. (diptilomiopidae) was the most abundant species, followed by neotetranychus asper feres & flechtmann, 2000 (tetranychidae). stigmaeidae (2.1%) and phytoseiidae (0.4%) were the most common families of predaceous mites, and agistemus brasiliensis matioli, ueckermann & oliveira, 2002 (stigmaeidae) and typhlodromalus aripo deleon, 1967 (phytoseiidae) the most common predaceous species.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Root Extracts of Rubus ellipticus (Smith)
Vadivelan . P,Rajesh Kumar . R,Bhadra . S,Shanish. A
Hygeia : Journal for Drugs and Medicines , 2009,
Abstract: The present work is targeted mainly to quantify the phenolic and flavanoid content of Rubus ellipticus root extracts. The quantitative analysis of data showed that, the methanol extract of Rubus ellipticus root contains 21 to 225mg/g of gallic acid and 16 to 29mg/g of rutin. The preliminary antioxidant activity of extracts was screened in vitro using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH), ABTS, Hydroxyl and lipid peroxidation (LPO) free radical models. The methanol extract showed strong scavenging activity against free radical compared to all other extracts experimented.
Diuretic Activity of Methanol Extracts of Rubus idaeus L.  [cached]
Ying Zhang,Zhenya Zhang,Yingnan Yang,Yuepeng Wang
International Journal of Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v3n2p75
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the diuretic potential of Rubus idaeus L. fruits. By measuring the urine volume of experimental animals, we find that methanol extract of Rubus idaeus L. fruits significantly increased the urine volume of experimental animals suggesting its diuretic effect. This is the first formal report on the diuretic activity of Rubus idaeus L. fruits. Moreover, four fractions isolated from the methanol extract were further studied and the results showed that ethyl acetate fraction (RIEA) has a direct relationship with the diuretic activity of Rubus idaeus L. fruits. The urinary electrolyte patterns of experimental animals were also analyzed, we find that Rubus idaeus L. fruits have an effect on the conservation of potassium, which is an interesting property in a phyto-diuretic.
Stability of Anthocyanins from Rubus glaucus and Solanum betaceum as affected by Temperature and Water Activity  [cached]
Olaya Clara Marcela,Casta?o Maria Paola,Garzon Monroy Gloria Astrid
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2009,
Abstract: The stability of sprayed-dried microencapsulated anthocyanins from Andes berry (Rubus glaucus) and Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum), as affected by storage time, water activity (Aw) and temperature was compared. The fruits were osmotically dehydrated with ethanol and the anthocyanin extract was microencapsulated with maltodextrin DE 20 by spray drying. Half life of the anthocyanins; changes in color, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of the powders, were analyzed during storage at two different temperatures (25 °C and 40 °C) and two Aw levels (0.20 and 0.35). A decrease in monomeric anthocyanin was observed in both samples. The half life of the Andes berry pigments ranged between 11 and 32 days while the half life of the tamarillo pigments ranged between 9 and 21 days. A darkening effect occurred in both samples as a result of storage time. The antioxidant activity decreased while the phenolic content increased with time. Antioxidant activity of Andes berry samples was highly correlated with anthocyanin content and total phenolic content while the antioxidant activity of tamarillo samples was highly correlated with total phenolic content. These results would be useful in developing applications for spray-dried anthocyanin as powdered food-grade colorants.
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