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Solar Energy Potentials and Utilization in Nigeria Agriculture
Yohanna, J. K.,Umogbai, V. I.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2010,
Abstract: The major pre-occupation of this review was to assess solar energy potentials and utilization in Nigeria agriculture. Apart from the conventional utilization of solar energy in drying agricultural products such as grains, fish, yam flakes among others; it was revealed from the study that other areas of solar energy utilization in agriculture include: heating and lighting of animal pens, pumping of water and irrigation, food and vaccine preservation and so on. Therefore, to ensure and enhance agricultural productivity in Nigeria, the expansion of solar energy supply schemes to the rural areas was amidst others recommended.
Utilization of Solar Energy for Power Generation in Nigeria
International Journal of Energy Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijee.20120202.07
Abstract: This study presents the viabilities for power generation in Nigeria through the utilization of the sun’s energy. Solar-thermal and photovoltaic options were discussed. It highlights the basic science for the design and selection of components for successfully harnessing solar power. Requirements for solar panel placement and orientation were also highlighted. It emphasizes that the knowledge and experience gained in solar energy as an abundant and convenient energy source, can play a role in steering the nation toward a permanent and sustainable development. The energy demand in Nigeria far outweighs the supply which is epileptic in nature. The acute electricity supply hinders the country’s development notwithstanding the availability of vast natural resources in the country. Our ability to continue the trend for affordable energy will be severely tested in the coming decades, as evidenced by the widening trade imbalance, collapse of big manufacturing companies, sharp increase in the cost of doing business just to mention but a few. It is the issue of utilizing the sun’s silent, inexhaustible, and non-polluting resource for power generation in Nigeria that this work addresses; hence it is the long-range review of the energy problem.
Application of liquid metals for solar energy systems  [cached]
Hering W.,Stieglitz R.,Wetzel Th.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20123303003
Abstract: Liquid metals have excellent properties to be used as heat transport fluids due to the high thermal conductivity and their wide applicable temperature range. The latter opens the gate utilizing more efficient power conversion options beyond the limitations of current thermal solar energy systems. By utilizing them as thermal storage medium, an improved coupling of state-of-the art power conversion systems (PCS) to solar plants seems promising. To avoid adverse effects of highly reactive fluid a compact design is envisaged, which fits best to concentrating solar power (CSP). In this context a solar storage system is proposed and will be qualified for fast reaction to compensate solar flux fluctuations and to optimize PCS. The paper will provide an outlook based on a concept study for a 100 MWth plant with a comparison to existing thermal solar plants. The vision also includes the capability for base load applications, including a day-wide storage system. Combining both systems, a fast response of the plant to compensate short term fluctuations from other renewable sources or from energy consumption is feasible.
Effective Utilization of Solar Energy Using Tracking Circuit for Domestic Loads
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents the practical utilization of the solar energy by using solar tracking system. The tracking circuit mainly works taking the inputs from the sensor units and giving signals to the microcontroller which in turn gives the pulses to drive the motor. The sensing units in this circuit are light depending resistors (LDRs)whose resistance varies proportional to the brightness of the light. The microcontroller generates pulses to run the motor depending on the program. The motor used is a geared DC motor. This stepper motor takes the input from the microcontroller and turns accordingly.
Thermal Energy Collection Forecasting Based on Soft Computing Techniques for Solar Heat Energy Utilization System  [PDF]
Atsushi Yona, Tomonobu Senjyu
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.33030
Abstract: In recent years, introduction of alternative energy sources such as solar energy is expected. Solar heat energy utilization systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as one of the best solutions to be an alternative energy source. However, thermal energy collection is influenced by solar radiation and weather conditions. In order to control a solar heat energy utilization system as accurate as possible, it requires method of solar radiation estimation. This paper proposes the forecast technique of a thermal energy collection of solar heat energy utilization system based on solar radiation forecasting at one-day-ahead 24-hour thermal energy collection by using three different NN models. The proposed technique with application of NN is trained by weather data based on tree-based model, and tested according to forecast day. Since tree-based-model classifies a meteorological data exactly, NN will train a solar radiation with smoothly. The validity of the proposed technique is confirmed by computer simulations by use of actual meteorological data.
Characteristic of Solar Radiation in Ningxia and Integrated Evaluation on Utilization Potential of Solar Energy

SANG Jian-ren,LIU Yu-lan,LIN Li,
,刘玉兰,林 莉

中国沙漠 , 2006,
Abstract: By analyzing the observation and calculating the solar radiation in Ningxia,we found out that the solar radiation and sunlight in northern Ningxia are more than that in the south,besides,the direct radiation is more and the diffuse solar radiation is less,and the solar available days is more,thus the utilization potential of solar equipment is high.According to results of analyzing on the utilization of solar energy with principal component method,Yinchuan City of Ningxia is ranked at No.3,Guyuan of Ningxia at No.12 in cities of China.So the resource of solar energy in Ningxia is rich,and the condition for utilization is good,which are good for developing and using solar energy.
Low Energy Solar Neutrino Detection by using Liquid Xenon  [PDF]
Y. Suzuki
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Possibility to use ultra pure liquid Xenon as a low energy solar neutrino detector by means of $\nu$+e scatterings is evaluated. A possible detector with 10 tons of fiducial volume will give $\sim$14 events for pp-neutrinos and $\sim$6 events for $^{7}$Be neutrinos with the energy threshold at 50 keV. The detector can be built with known and established technologies. High density of the liquid- Xe would provide self-shields against the incoming backgrounds originating from the container and outer environments. Internal backgrounds can be reduced by distillation and other techniques. Purification of the liquid Xe can be done continuously throughout the experiment. The spallation backgrounds are estimated to be small though an experimental determination is neccessary. The liquid-Xe detector can also provide a significantly better sensitivity for the double beta decay and a dark matter search. However the 2$\nu$ double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe would be most background. It could be overcome if the 2$\nu$ lifetime is longer than 10$^{22}$yr. However, an isotope separation of $^{136}$Xe is inevitable for a shorter lifetime. The isotope separations would, intoroduce a new opportunity to definitively identify dark matter. The interesting feature in addition to the solar neutrino measurements will also be discussed.
Utilization of pet botlles and solar energy in disinfection of water for small communities
Marcelo Jacomini Moreira,José Euclides Stipp Paterniani
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2005,
Abstract: Besides being an available natural source, the solar energy is very applicable in places where there are bad recourses and low money resouces, because there aren’t either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost ( commercial materials can be re-used). To make this job we used re-used half painted black PET bottles with the variables: exposed to heat times: 1, 2, 4 e 6 hours and we used also a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The afluent control parameters were: turbidity, aparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. The effluent parameters were just the last three: temperature, total coliforms and E.coli. To asses the bacteria reativation the water was kept in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a situation that is very commom in brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the exposion to heat from 6 to 4 hours, without prejudice the SODIS efficience and using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS), with a 70oC water temperature and stoping the re-growth of bacteria. We also observed that when there are clouds in the sky the incidention of solar radiation and the SODIS efficince decrease, even if the water temperature is highter during the desinfection, although this factor doesn’t mean a significative influence statisticlly.
Effects of straw mulching and irrigation on solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat farmland

LI Quanqi,CHEN Yuhai,WU Wei,YU Shunzhang,ZHOU Xunbo,DONG Qingyu,YU Songlie,

应用生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The study showed that straw mulching decreased the basic seedlings and tillers of winter wheat and the leaf area index (LAI) at earlier growth stage, but increased the LAI at latter growth stage. Straw mulching and irrigation reduced the transmittance and reflectance of PAR, resulting in the increase of PAR capture ratio mainly at the height of 40-60 cm. The solar energy utilization ratio of grain was decreased by straw mulching, while that of stem and leaf was increased. The total solar energy utilization efficiency of winter wheat could also be increased by straw mulching.
Borexino: A real time liquid scintillator detector for low energy solar neutrino study  [PDF]
Lino Miramonti
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Borexino is a large unsegmented calorimeter featuring 300 tons of liquid scintillator, contained in a 8.5 meter nylon vessel, viewed by 2200 PMTs. The main goal of Borexino is the study, in real time, of low energy solar neutrinos, and in particular, the monoenergetic neutrinos coming from $^7Be$, which is one of the missing links on the solar neutrino problem. The achievement of high radiopurity level, in the order of $10^{-16} g/g$ of U/Th equivalent, necessary to the detection of the low energy component of the solar neutrino flux, was proved in the Borexino prototype: the Counting Test Facility. The detector is located underground in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in the center of Italy at 3500 meter water equivalent depth. In this paper the science and technology of Borexino are reviewed and its main capabilities are presented.
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