Abstract:
We consider symmetry as a foundational concept in quantum mechanics and rewrite quantum mechanics and measurement axioms in this description. We argue that issues related to measurements and physical reality of states can be better understood in this view. In particular, the abstract concept of symmetry provides a basis-independent definition for observables. Moreover, we show that the apparent projection/collapse of the state as the final step of measurement or decoherence is the result of breaking of symmetries. This phenomenon is comparable with a phase transition by spontaneous symmetry breaking, and makes the process of decoherence and classicality a natural fate of complex systems consisting of many interacting subsystems. Additionally, we demonstrate that the property of state space as a vector space representing symmetries is more fundamental than being an abstract Hilbert space, and its $L2$ integrability can be obtained from the imposed condition of being a representation of a symmetry group and general properties of probability distributions.

Abstract:
In nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and in relativistic quantum field theory, time t is a parameter and thus the time-reversal operator T does not actually reverse the sign of t. However, in relativistic quantum mechanics the time coordinate t and the space coordinates x are treated on an equal footing and all are operators. In this paper it is shown how to extend PT symmetry from nonrelativistic to relativistic quantum mechanics by implementing time reversal as an operation that changes the sign of the time coordinate operator t. Some illustrative relativistic quantum-mechanical models are constructed whose associated Hamiltonians are non-Hermitian but PT symmetric, and it is shown that for each such Hamiltonian the energy eigenvalues are all real.

Abstract:
A foundation of quantum mechanics based on the concepts of focusing and symmetry is proposed. Focusing is connected to c-variables - inaccessible conceptually derived variables; several examples of such variables are given. The focus is then on a maximal accessible parameter, a function of the common c-variable. Symmetry is introduced via a group acting on the c-variable. From this, the Hilbert space is constructed and state vectors and operators are given a clear interpretation. The Born formula is proved from weak assumptions, and from this the usual rules of quantum mechanics are derived. Several paradoxes and other issues of quantum theory are discussed.

Abstract:
We reconsider the generalization of standard quantum mechanics in which the position operators do not commute. We argue that the standard formalism found in the literature leads to theories that do not share the symmetries present in the corresponding commutative system. We propose a general prescription to specify a Hamiltonian in the noncommutative theory that preserves the existing symmetries. We show that it is always possible to choose this Hamiltonian in such a way that the energy spectrum of the standard and non-commuting theories are identical, so that experimental differences between the predictions of both theories are to be found only at the level of the detailed structure of the energy eigenstates.

Abstract:
It is an interesting and open problem to trace the origin of the pseudospin symmetry in nuclear single-particle spectra and its symmetry breaking mechanism in actual nuclei. In this report, we mainly focus on our recent progress on this topic by combining the similarity renormalization group technique, supersymmetric quantum mechanics, and perturbation theory. We found that it is a promising direction to understand the pseudospin symmetry in a quantitative way.

EPR experiment on system in 1998 [1] strongly hints that one should use operators and for the wavefunction (WF) of antiparticle. Further analysis on Klein-Gordon (KG) equation reveals that there is a discrete symmetry hiding in relativistic quantum mechanics (RQM) that PT=C. Here PTmeans the (newly defined) combined space-time inversion (with x→-x,t→-t), while Cthe transformation of WF Ψ between particle and its antiparticle whose definition is just residing in the above symmetry. After combining with Feshbach-Villars (FV) dissociation of KG equation (Ψ=φ+x) [2], this discrete symmetry can be rigorously reformulated by the invariance of coupling equation of φand xunder either the combined space-time inversion PT or the mass inversion (m

Abstract:
We present a clear and mathematically simple procedure explaining spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum mechanical systems. The procedure is applicable to a wide range of models and can be easily used to explain the existence of a symmetry broken state in crystals, antiferromagnets and even superconductors. It has the advantage that it automatically brings to the fore the main players in spontaneous symmetry breaking: the symmetry breaking field, the thermodynamic limit, and the global excitations of the thin spectrum.

Abstract:
On the basis of the relativistic symmetry of Minkowski space, we derive a Lorentz invariant equation for a spread electron. This equation slightly differs from the Dirac equation and includes additional terms originating from the spread of an electron. Further, we calculate the anomalous magnetic moment based on these terms. These calculations do not include any divergence; therefore, renormalization procedures are unnecessary. In addition, the relativistic symmetry existing among coordinate systems will provide a new prospect for the foundations of quantum mechanics like the measurement process.

Abstract:
Taking several statistical examples, in particular one involving a choice of experiment, as points of departure, and making symmetry assumptions, the link towards quantum theory developed in Helland (2005a,b) is surveyed and clarified. The quantum Hilbert space is constructed from the parameters of the various experiments using group representation theory. It is shown under natural assumptions that a subset of the set of unit vectors of this space, the generalized coherent state vectors, can be put in correspondence with questions of the kind: What is the value of the (complete) parameter? - together with a crisp answer to that question. Links are made to statistical models in general, to model reduction of overparametrized models and to the design of experiments. It turns out to be essential that the range of the statistical parameter is an invariant set under the relevant symmetry group.