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LDL-Related Intolerance to Glucose, Diastolic Hypertension and Additive Effects of Smoking Were Found with Three Female Study Groups  [PDF]
Ruth-Maria Korth
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.83026
Abstract: Initial prodiabetic risk profiles were invented here with three female study groups consisting of primarily healthy women (A1: 1990-1999, n = 160; A2: 2009, n = 88; A: n = 248, 36 ± 14 years; B: 2014: n = 65, aged 37± 11 years). Significantly higher blood pressure was found comparing intolerance versus tolerance to glucose (p < 0.05, IGTT, 22 of 68). High LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) showed additive effects as LDL-related intolerance was further related with rise of blood pressure (p < 0.05), of triglycerides (p = 0.02), of fasting blood glucose (p = 0.07) and of urine pathology (p = 0.07). High LDL-C of women who reported smoking at baseline was correlated with diastolic hypertension whereby alcohol problems overlapped (p = 0.036, A). Unhealthy combinations were found consisting of LDL-related intolerance to glucose, LDL-related smoking, of alcohol-related hypertriglyceridemia or of combined drinking and smoking testing urine pathology over the course of time. Obese women were at direct risk for hypertension in the presence of high LDL-C and submaximal ratio of serum albumin to triglycerides (Alb/Trig). Obese women reacted highly sensitive to critical alcohol consumption showing then macroalbuminuria. Current participants who disowned daily alcohol consumption showed healthy morning urines and normal fasting blood glucose. Mild decrease of HDL-C was observed during heavy smoking of relatively young women who had normal biomarkers. Women with intolerance to glucose were at direct risk for hypertension whereby high LDL-C and/or smoking triggered prodiabetic risk profiles. Obese women had elevated LDL-C during hypertension and reacted highly sensitive to alcohol-related proteinuria and/or hematuria.
Glucose Intolerance and Hyperlipidemia Prior to Diabetes Onset in Female Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Rats  [PDF]
Masami Shinohara,Toshihiro Oikawa,Kahei Sato,Yasunori Kanazawa
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/15438600490898609
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat, a newly established animal model for diabetes mellitus, presents nonobese type 2 diabetes with ocular complications. In the present study, oral glucose tolerance tests and biochemical and histopathological examinations were performed in female SDT rats at 16 and/or 25 weeks of age, before the onset of diabetes. At 25 weeks of age, glucose tolerance was significantly impaired, and plasma immunoreactive insulin levels at 120 min after glucose loading were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Body weight and fasting levels of plasma triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids were significantly higher than those in control animals. Histopathologically, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis were observed in and around the pancreatic islets. These results strongly suggest that female SDT rats are useful as a model to investigate impairment of glucose tolerance and hyperlipidemia prior to the onset of diabetes.
Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study
Luis F Gomez, Diana C Parra, Felipe Lobelo, Belen Samper, José Moreno, Enrique Jacoby, Diego I Lucumi, Sandra Matsudo, Catalina Borda
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-41
Abstract: This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population.Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results.Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance for the prevention of childhood obesity.Childhood obesity is associated with the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, as well as their clustering [1]. Moreover, overweight children and adolescents are at increased risk for obesity and related cardio-metabolic consequences during adulthood, thus entailing that obesity prevention should begin during childhood [2,3].The prevalence
Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly
Kreze, A.;Kreze-Spirova, E.;Mikulecky, M.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001001100009
Abstract: in the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% ci: 8-33%) had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16%) impaired glucose tolerance. no impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. the frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general slovak population. ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. a family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (p<0.05, chi-square test). a significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. in conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection) was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.
Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly  [cached]
Kreze A.,Kreze-Spirova E.,Mikulecky M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001,
Abstract: In the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. Among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% CI: 8-33%) had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16%) impaired glucose tolerance. No impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. The frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general Slovak population. Ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. A family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (P<0.05, chi-square test). A significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. Concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. In conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection) was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. Besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.
Predicting glucose intolerance with normal fasting plasma glucose by the components of the metabolic syndrome  [cached]
Pei Dee,Lin Jiunn-Diann,Wu Du-An,Hsieh Chang-Hsun
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Surprisingly, it is estimated that about half of type 2 diabetics remain undetected. The possible causes may be partly attributable to people with normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) but abnormal postprandial hyperglycemia. We attempted to develop an effective predictive model by using the metabolic syndrome (MeS) components as parameters to identify such persons. Subjects and Methods: All participants received a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, which showed that 106 had normal glucose tolerance, 61 had impaired glucose tolerance, and 6 had diabetes-on-isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia. We tested five models, which included various MeS components. Model 0: FPG; Model 1 (clinical history model): family history (FH), FPG, age and sex; Model 2 (MeS model): Model 1 plus triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure; Model 3: Model 2 plus fasting plasma insulin (FPI); Model 4: Model 3 plus homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the predictive discrimination of these models. Results: The area under the ROC curve of the Model 0 was significantly larger than the area under the diagonal reference line. All the other 4 models had a larger area under the ROC curve than Model 0. Considering the simplicity and lower cost of Model 2, it would be the best model to use. Nevertheless, Model 3 had the largest area under the ROC curve. Conclusion: We demonstrated that Model 2 and 3 have a significantly better predictive discrimination to identify persons with normal FPG at high risk for glucose intolerance.
Nerve conduction abnormalities in different stages of glucose intolerance
Viswanathan Vijay,Seena Rajasekar,Nair Mamtha,Snehalatha Chamukuttan
Neurology India , 2004,
Abstract: AIMS: To look for changes in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in early stages of glucose intolerance, i.e. in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and in asymptomatic newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetic subjects (NDD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 225 subjects were categorized as: Group 1: Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), Group 2: IGT subjects and Group 3: NDD subjects. Motor (MCV) and Sensory nerve Conduction Velocity (SCV) measurements were done. RESULTS: The mean MCV was significantly lower in the NDD group (47 ± 5 m/s) when compared with the other two groups (IGT=50 ±4.5 m/s; NGT= 53 ± 4 m/s; P=0.0001). The IGT group of subjects also exhibited a significantly lower mean MCV when compared with the NGT subjects (P=0.0001). The mean SCV in the NDD group (42+10 m/s) was also significantly lower (P<0.0007) than the NGT (46+6 m/s) and the IGT (48+10 m/s) groups. No significant difference in the mean SCV between the NGT and IGT groups was noted. In the multiple linear regression analysis both age and male gender were the risk factors for abnormal MCV and SCV. Abnormal MCV was found to be associated with 2-hr post glucose levels (R2 = 14.5%), while HbA1c (R2 = 4.9%) contributed towards abnormal SCV. CONCLUSION: Abnormal NCV is a common finding in NDD subjects. Slower mean MCV demonstrated by IGT subjects, calls for early screening of these subjects for complications.
Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study
Chunfang Qiu, Daniel Enquobahrie, Ihunnaya O Frederick, Dejene Abetew, Michelle A Williams
BMC Women's Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-17
Abstract: A cohort of 1,290 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about sleep duration and snoring during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were abstracted from medical records. Generalized linear models were fitted to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of GDM associated with sleep duration and snoring, respectively.After adjusting for maternal age and race/ethnicity, GDM risk was increased among women sleeping ≤ 4 hours compared with those sleeping 9 hours per night (RR = 5.56; 95% CI 1.31-23.69). The corresponding RR for lean women (<25 kg/m2) was 3.23 (95% CI 0.34-30.41) and 9.83 (95% CI 1.12-86.32) for overweight women (≥ 25 kg/m2). Overall, snoring was associated with a 1.86-fold increased risk of GDM (RR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.88-3.94). The risk of GDM was particularly elevated among overweight women who snored. Compared with lean women who did not snore, those who were overweight and snored had a 6.9-fold increased risk of GDM (95% CI 2.87-16.6).These preliminary findings suggest associations of short sleep duration and snoring with glucose intolerance and GDM. Though consistent with studies of men and non-pregnant women, larger studies that include objective measures of sleep duration, quality and apnea are needed to obtain more precise estimates of observed associations.Insufficient sleep duration and poor sleep quality are considered to be endemic in modern society. Findings from epidemiological and animal experimental studies indicate that chronic partial sleep loss is associated with increased risks of obesity and a myriad of obesity-related disorders including impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease, stroke and premature mortality [1-8]. The impact of short sleep duration on the risk of diabetes has been shown in several epidemiological studies, with significant increases in the incide
Endothelial Function in Women with and without a History of Glucose Intolerance in Pregnancy  [PDF]
Shireen Brewster,John Floras,Bernard Zinman,Ravi Retnakaran
Journal of Diabetes Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/382670
Abstract: Background/Aims. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and milder gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) identify women who are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by impaired flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) on brachial artery ultrasound, is an early marker of vascular disease. Thus, we sought to evaluate endothelial function in women with and without recent glucose intolerance in pregnancy. Methods. One-hundred and seventeen women underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in pregnancy, enabling stratification into those with normal gestational glucose tolerance ( ) and those with GDM or GIGT ( ). 6 years postpartum, they underwent a repeat of OGTT and brachial artery FMD studies, enabling assessment of FMD and 4 secondary vascular measures: FMD after 60 seconds (FMD60), baseline arterial diameter, peak shear rate, and reactive hyperemia. Results. There were no differences between the normal gestational glucose tolerance and GDM/GIGT groups in FMD (mean 8.5 versus 9.3%, ), FMD60 (4.1 versus 5.1%, ), baseline diameter (3.4 versus 3.4?mm, ), peak shear rate (262.6 versus 274.8?s?1, ), and reactive hyperemia (576.6 versus 496.7%, ). After covariate adjustment, there were still no differences between the groups. Conclusion. Despite their long-term cardiovascular risk, women with glucose intolerance in pregnancy do not display endothelial dysfunction 6 years postpartum. 1. Introduction Pregnancy has been described as a stress test that can identify women at risk of future chronic disease [1]. One such high-risk population identified in pregnancy consists of women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance of varying severity with first onset or recognition in pregnancy [2]. Although most women return to normoglycemia in the early postpartum period, women with a history of GDM have an increased risk of subsequently developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the years thereafter [3, 4]. Besides dysglycemia, women with GDM exhibit other elements of an enhanced cardiovascular risk factor profile by as early as 3 months postpartum, including both (i) traditional risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome [5, 6], and (ii) nontraditional risk factors, such as increased C-reactive protein and low circulating levels of the fat-derived protein adiponectin [7]. Indeed, despite their relative youth (i.e., childbearing age), women with GDM have a 70% higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to their peers, within just
Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Value of Tissue Doppler Echocardiography
Antoine Kossaify and Nayla Nicolas
Clinical Medicine Insights: Cardiology , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CMC.S11156
Abstract: Background: Diastolic dysfunction is a common cause of heart failure with preserved systolic function in obese patients. Objective: To assess diastolic function in a series of overweight and obese patients using conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Setting and method: University hospital; left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated in 99 patients (mean age 61.59 ± 13.9 years); body mass index and waist circumference were assessed, and patients were subdivided into three groups according to their body mass index (kg/m2): [normal, (18.5–24.9); overweight, (25–29.9); obese, (>29.9)]. Peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow and peak early (E ) diastolic mitral annulus velocities were measured. Results: Diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher in the overweight/obese groups compared to the normal body mass index group. The analysis was made with regard to waist circumference and other clinical characteristics, and multivariate regression analysis showed a direct and independent effect of body mass index on diastolic function [OR: 2.75; CI: 1.34–5.67; P = 0.006]. Discussion was made in view of the latest clinical data. Also, an insight into normal weight obesity is presented and discussed. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are found to have an independent negative impact on diastolic function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging.
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