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Eggshell Appearance Does Not Signal Maternal Corticosterone Exposure in Japanese Quail: An Experimental Study with Brown-Spotted Eggs  [PDF]
Camille Duval, Phillip Cassey, Paul G. Lovell, Ivan Mik?ík, S. James Reynolds, Karen A. Spencer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080485
Abstract: Reproduction is a critical period for birds as they have to cope with many stressful events. One consequence of an acute exposure to stress is the release of corticosterone, the avian stress hormone. Prolonged stress can have negative impacts on the immune system, resulting in, for example, increased oxidative stress. Through maternal effects, females are known to modulate their investment in eggs content according to their own physiological condition. Less is known about maternal investment in eggshells, especially in pigments. The two main eggshell pigments may possess opposite antioxidant properties: protoporphyrin (brown) is a pro-oxidant, whereas biliverdin (blue-green) is an antioxidant. In Japanese quail, we know that the deposition of both pigments is related to female body condition. Thus, a chronic stress response may be reflected in eggshell coloration. Using female Japanese quails that lay brown-spotted eggs, we explored whether physiological exposure to corticosterone induces a change in female basal stress and antioxidant factors, and eggshell pigment concentration, spectrophotometric reflectance, and maculation coverage. We supplemented adult females over a 2 week period with either peanut oil (control) or corticosterone (treatment). We collected pre- and post-supplementation eggs and analysed the effect of corticosterone treatment on female physiology and eggshell appearance parameters. Except for corticosterone-fed birds which laid eggs with brighter spots, supplementation had no significant effect on female physiology or eggshell pigment concentration, reflectance and maculation. The change in eggshell spot brightness was not detected by a photoreceptor noise-limited color opponent model of avian visual perception. Our data confirms that eggshell reflectance in spotted eggs varies over the laying sequence, and spot reflectance may be a key factor that is affected by females CORT exposure, even if the changes are not detected by an avian visual model.
Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Scrophularia striata
A Azadmehr, G Maliji, R Hajiaghaee, M Shahnazi, A Afaghi
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of S. striata on pro-inflammatory production by macrophages. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in solvent either alone or with 2 ìg/ml lipopolysaccaride (LPS) with/without different doses of ethyl acetate extract of S. striata. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1a (IL-1a), tumor necrosis factor - á (TNF-á) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were examined using ELISA. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. striata in doses of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ìg/ml significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1a, TNF-á, and PGE2) production by LPS stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract on pro-inflammatory cytokines may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, possibly via an immunomodulatory mechanism.
Roles of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of SLE
Ding-Lei Su,Zhi-Min Lu,Min-Ning Shen,Xia Li,Ling-Yun Sun
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/347141
Abstract: SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-10, BAFF, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23, play crucial pathogenic roles. Virtually, all these cytokines can be generated by both innate and adaptive immune cells and exert different effects depending on specific local microenvironment. They can also interact with each other, forming a complex network to maintain delicate immune homeostasis. In this paper, we elaborate on the abnormal secretion and functions of these cytokines in SLE, analyze their potential pathogenic roles, and probe into the possibility of them being utilized as targets for therapy.
Effects of Freshwater Clam Extract Supplementation on Time to Exhaustion, Muscle Damage, Pro/Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines, and Liver Injury in Rats after Exhaustive Exercise  [PDF]
Kuo-Chin Huang,Wen-Tien Wu,Fwu-Lin Yang,Yi-Han Chiu,Tai-Chu Peng,Bang-Gee Hsu,Kuang-Wen Liao,Ru-Ping Lee
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18043825
Abstract: The potent anti-inflammatory activities and tissue-protective effects of freshwater clams ( Corbicula fluminea) have been well reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of freshwater clam extract (FCE) supplementation on time to exhaustion, muscle damage, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and liver injury in rats after exhaustive exercise. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (SC); SC group with FCE supplementation (SC+FCE); exhaustive exercise (E); and E group with FCE supplementation (E+FCE). The SC+FCE and E+FCE groups were treated with gavage administration of 20 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Blood samples were collected for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. The cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-10 were also examined. Twenty-four hours after exhaustive exercise, the rat livers were removed for H & E staining. The FCE supplementation could extend the time to exhaustion in exercised rats. The levels of CPK, LDH, AST, ALT, lactate, TNF-α and H & E stains of the liver injury were significantly decreased in the E+FCE group, but the blood glucose and IL-10 were significantly higher in comparison with the E group. This study suggests that FCE supplementation may improve endurance performance and reduce exercise-induced muscle damage, inflammatory stress and liver injury.
Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect) Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Murine Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Celine LaveMahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Celine Lavelle, Daniel Paul Przybylski, Dianne Heather Vincent, Dorothy Felger, Douglas Jay Konersman, Elizabeth Ann Feeney, Jay Anthony Prague, Joanne Lydia Starodub, Karan Rasdan, Karen Mie Strassman, Leonid Soboleff, Maire Anne Mayne, Mary M. Keesee, Padmanabha Narayana Pillai, Pamela Clarkson Ansley, Ronald David Schmitz, Sharyn Marie Sodomora, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
American Journal of Health Research , 2016, DOI: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20160406.15
Abstract: The utilization and demand of self-medication with herbomineral-based formulations have increased day-by-day across the globe over the last decade. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was prepared with the mixture of minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium) and the herbal root extract of ashwagandha. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect) on the test herbomineral formulation using murine dendritic cells (DCs) and splenocytes in vitro. The formulation was divided into two parts, one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The effect of the Biofield Energy Treated formulation in murine cells was monitored with an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants along with estimations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation by MTT assay. The Biofield Treated formulation showed 114.2%, 122.6%, 141.2%, 127.8%, and 114.1% cell viability at concentrations 1.05, 5.2, 10.5, 25.6, and 51.2 μg/mL, respectively in DCs. Similarly, the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated formulations showed more than 100% cell viability in mice splenocytes at 5 μg/mL. The level of TNF-α in DCs was significantly (p≤0.05) inhibited by 19.21% in the Biofield Treated formulation at concentration 5.2 μg/mL as compared to the untreated test formulation. The level of MIP-1α in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was reduced by 15.35% in the Biofield Energy Treated formulation at 0.0105 μg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Similarly, the level of IL-1β in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was significantly (p≤0.05) reduced by 31.59% in the Biofield Treated formulation at 1.05 μg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Altogether, the results suggest that The Trivedi Effect (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) showed significant down-regulation of the tested pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the treated formulation to modulate the immune system. These data also suggest that the Biofield Treated test formulation can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Impact of Biofield Energy Treated Herbomineral Formulation (The Trivedi Effect) on Mouse Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells for Modulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Aileen Carol Lee, Aksana Hancharuk, Carola Marina Sand, Debra Jane Schnitzer, Rudina Thanasi, Eileen Mary Meagher, Faith Ann Pyka, Gary Richard Gerber, Johanna Catharina Stromsnas, Judith Marian Shapiro, Laura Nelson Streicher, Lorraine Marie Hachfeld, Matthew Charles Hornung, Patricia M. Rowe, Sally Jean Henderson, Sheila Maureen Benson, Shirley Theresa Holmlund, Stephen P. Salters, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
International Journal of Immunology , 2016, DOI: 10.11648/j.iji.20160405.12
Abstract: The use of herbomineral formulation in the healthcare sector for different chronic diseases is gaining popularity due to its fewer side effects, high safety profile, and cost effectiveness. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated, consisting of four essential ingredients viz. herbal root extract (ashwagandha), and minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium). The study aims to evaluate the in vitro effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect) on the test formulation using murine dendritic (DCs) and splenocyte cells. The herbomineral formulation was divided into two parts; one was represented as control, while the other part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers (The Trivedi Effect) and defined as the Biofield Treated formulation. The effect of the test formulation on these cells were monitored by an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines level such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α), and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants at the non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation using MTT assay. The DCs were treated with the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at different concentrations (i.e. 1.05 to 1052.5 μg/mL) for 24 hours, and the results showed significant (p≤0.001) suppression of TNF-α levels at all the tested concentrations with a maximum percentage decrease by 43.64% at 5.2 μg/mL concentration in the Biofield Treated formulation as compared with the untreated test formulation. Further, the Biofield Treated formulation also demonstrated inhibition of MIP-1α and IL-1β at a concentration range of 0.0000105 to 10.5 μg/mL in LPS stimulated splenocyte cells. There was a significant (p≤0.001) inhibition of MIP-1α (26.52%) and IL-1β (35.28%) in the Biofield Treated test formulation at concentration 0.000105 μg/mL and 0.0000105 μg/mL, respectively in comparison to the untreated test formulation. Overall, these results suggest that the Biofield Energy Healing based herbomineral formulation (The Trivedi Effect?) significantly down-regulated the tested cytokines expression in DCs and splenocyte cells as compared to the untreated formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Healing based formulation might be useful as a better anti-inflammatory product for many chronic and acute inflammatory disease conditions and autoimmune disorders. The Biofield Energy Treatment based formulation can also be effectively applied in cases of organ transplants, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Clinical Findings and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Dengue Patients in Western India: A Facility-Based Study  [PDF]
D. Priyadarshini,Rajesh R. Gadia,Anuradha Tripathy,K. R. Gurukumar,Asha Bhagat,Sampada Patwardhan,Nitin Mokashi,Dhananjay Vaidya,Paresh S. Shah,D. Cecilia
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008709
Abstract: Descriptions of dengue immunopathogenesis have largely relied on data from South-east Asia and America, while India is poorly represented. This study characterizes dengue cases from Pune, Western India, with respect to clinical profile and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Relation between Pro-inflammatory Cytokines and Acetylcholine Levels in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients  [PDF]
Marcella Reale,Federica de Angelis,Marta di Nicola,Elisabetta Capello,Maria di Ioia,Giovanna de Luca,Alessandra Lugaresi,Ada Maria Tata
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms131012656
Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorder. Since acetylcholine (ACh) is known to participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the possible relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and acetylcholine levels in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. Levels of ACh and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1-β and IL-17 were measured both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sera of 22 RR-MS patients in the relapsing phase and in 17 control subjects affected by other non-neurological diseases (OND). We observed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-17 in both CSF and serum of RR-MS patients compared to control subjects. Moreover, ACh levels were lower in CSF and serum of RR-MS patients compared to levels of control subjects. Although the relationship between high inflammatory cytokine levels and low ACh levels need to be further investigated in the future, our data suggest that IL-1β, and cytokines induced by it, such as IL-17 and ACh, may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines in Turkish children with protein-energy malnutrition  [PDF]
Haluk Dülger,Mehmet Arik,M. Ramazan ekero lu,Mehmet Tarak io lu,Tevfik Noyan,Ya ar Cesur,Ragip Balahoro lu
Mediators of Inflammation , 2002, DOI: 10.1080/0962935021000051566
Abstract: Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) results from food insufficiency as well as from poor social and economic conditions. Development of PEM is due to insufficient nutrition. Children with PEM lose their resistance to infections because of a disordered immune system. It has been reported that the changes occurring in mediators referred to as cytokines in the immune system may be indicators of the disorders associated with PEM.
Differential activation of JAK enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorders by pro-inflammatory cytokines: potential drug targets
Charles J Malemud
International Journal of Interferon, Cytokine and Mediator Research , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJICMR.S9470
Abstract: ential activation of JAK enzymes in rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune disorders by pro-inflammatory cytokines: potential drug targets Review (4806) Total Article Views Authors: Charles J Malemud Published Date October 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 97 - 111 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJICMR.S9470 Charles J Malemud Arthritis Research Laboratory, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Although several pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-12/IL-23, IL-17, IL-2, interferon, and the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4/IL-13, IL-10, and IL-22, all activate the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, in autoimmune disorders, a skewing of the cytokine repertoire in favor of pro-inflammatory cytokines results in amplifying the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines. An apparent deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines to counterbalance the ‘ramping up’ of pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated activation of JAK/STAT is also significant, while endogenous negative regulators of cytokine signaling and JAK/STAT activation may also be compromised. In addition, JAK/STAT pathway activation can result in activation of stress-activated protein/mitogen-activated protein kinase (SAP/MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways that are instrumental in promoting matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, aberrant cell survival, and osteoclast differentiation. The critical role played by pro-inflammatory cytokines in differentially activating JAK/STAT and parallel signal transduction pathways resulted in the development of several cytokine/cytokine receptor neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins that are currently employed for treating rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that target specific JAK enzymes have led to the development of CP690550, a JAK3-specific SMI, which is the first JAK-specific SMI to reach phase III in a rheumatoid arthritis clinical trial.
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