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从城乡分割到城乡一体:中国农村基本公共服务政策变迁 40 年
From Urban-Rural Separation to Urban-Rural Integration: Transformation of China’s Rural Basic Public Service Policies in the Past Four Decades
 [PDF]

林万龙
- , 2018,
Abstract: 40 年来中国农村基本公共服务政策体系的变迁可以归纳为三个阶段,即政府财政明显缺位阶段(1978—2002 年)、公共财政逐步覆盖阶段(2003—2013 年)和走向城乡一体化阶段(2014 年至今)。在农村改革启动之后的相当长时期内,农村基本公共服务政策的实质仍然是人民公社时期政策的延续,政府财政并没有在公社解体后相应承担起提供农村基本公共服务的职责。 从 2003 年起之后的 10 年左右时间,中国基本构筑起了以公共财政支持为主的农村基本公共服务体系,但仍然留存了显著的城乡二元痕迹。 2014 年以来,以城乡基本养老保险制度并轨为标志,城乡基本公共服务政策体系的一体化工作开始启动,城乡基本公共服务均等化的政策体系开始构建,旧体制的遗迹终于开始了彻底的消除。 但在提升农村基本公共服务水平、实现城乡基本公共服务均等化方面,仍然任重而道远。
This paper summarizes transformation of China’s rural basic public service policies in the past four decades as three phases: obvious vacancy of public finance (1978—2002), gradually coverage by public finance (2003—2013) and move towards urban - rural integration (2014 - ). Analysis of this paper shows that during a long time after the initiation of rural reform, rural basic public service policy system is the extending of the policy system of People’s Commune in essence, i. e. no enough responsibility for government’s finance to provide rural basic public service. About 10 years from year 2003, Chinese government built rural basic public service system which is mainly supported by public finance, while remaining remarkable character of urban-rural separation. From year 2004, marked with the merging of rural and urban basic pension insurance systems, integration of urban and rural basic public service policy systems has initialed, equalization of urban-rural basic public service has begun to build and historical remains of the old system has begun to be completely abolished. But it also should be kept in mind that the objective of improving rural basic public service and realizing equalization of urban-rural basic public service embarks on a long road.
我国体育公共服务城乡一体化的内涵、困境与实现路径
Connotations, Difficulties and Realization Way of Urban-Rural Integration of Sports Public Service in China
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葛新
- , 2017, DOI: 10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2017.08.002
Abstract: 摘要:主要采用文献资料法、访谈法等研究方法,从剖析我国体育公共服务城乡一体化的内涵为起点,对我国目前体育公共服务城乡一体化的困境与实现路径进行了研究,进一步完善了体育社会学理论,也为新时期体育公共服务发展提供一定的理论指导。体育公共服务城乡一体化是一个发展的过程,也是最终的一种社会结构状态。我国目前体育公共服务城乡一体化面临的困境主要是:1)农民体育需求表达冷漠;2)不同地区之间体育公共服务发展严重失衡;3)体育公共服务政策执行不力。研究认为:1)分层次、分区域逐步推进体育公共服务城乡一体化建设;2)完善体育公共政策与法规;3)发展以政府为主导的体育公共服务多元化供给模式;4)加大对农村地区的体育投资力度,城乡统一规划管理等路径促进我国体育公共服务城乡一体化的实现。
Abstract: Taking the analysis of connotation of urban-rural integration of sports public service in China as the starting point, this study analyzed its difficulties and realization way by the methods of literature review and interview, for improving the theory of sports sociology, and providing theoretical guidance for the development of sports public service in the new period. The urban-rural integration of sports public service is a process of development, but also the final form of social structure. The difficulties of urban-rural integration of sports public service in China are: 1) peasants hold indifferent attitude towards the sports demand; 2) the development of sports public service is imbalance among different areas; 3) the policies of sports public service are failed to implement effectively. Conclusions: The following ways can promote the urban-rural integration of sports public service: 1) gradually promote the integration; 2) improve policies and regulations; 3) develop a government-led diversified supply model of sports public service; 4) increase investment in rural sports and plan and manage urban and rural sports uniformly
统筹城乡发展中的村落体育公共服务现状研究
Current Situation of Village Sports Public Service in Integrating Urban and Rural Development and Its Countermeasures
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卢文云,卢文洲,陈珍怀
- , 2016, DOI: 10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2016.07.001
Abstract: 摘要:为解决我国村落体育公共服务的现存问题,促进乡村社会和谐发展和体育事业全面发展,以统筹城乡综合配套改革实验区——成都市的行政村为研究对象,综合运用文献法、问卷调查法、访谈调查法、数理统计法对村落体育公共服务的供需现状、发展对策进行分析。研究认为:村民对村落体育公共服务的总体满意度评价不高、村落体育公共服务的供给总体水平不高、村落体育公共服务的自组织能力较差、村民对村落体育公共服务的参与程度比较低、村落体育公共服务发展的长效机制尚未建立是统筹城乡发展中村落体育公共服务存在的主要问题。
Abstract: In order to solve the existing problems of China village sports public service, and promote rural areas’ harmonious development of society and the all-round development of sports, this study chose villages around Chengdu, which is an reform experimental zone of integrating urban and rural development, and analyzed supply and demand status and development countermeasures of village sports public service by the methods of literature review, questionnaire, interview, and mathematical statistics. Main conclusions: Villagers gave a low satisfaction evaluation to village sports public service. Overall supply level of village sports public service is not high. Self-organization capacity of village public sports service is low. Villagers have a low participation to village sports public service. Long-term effective mechanism of village sports public service development is still not built up. These are the main existing problems of village sports public service
统筹城乡发展中促进村落体育公共服务发展的策略研究
Strategies of Promoting Public Sports Service in Village Under the Circumstance of Balancing Urban and Rural Development
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卢文云
- , 2018, DOI: 10.19582/j.cnki.11-3785/g8.2018.02.003
Abstract: 摘要:为促进乡村社会和谐发展和体育事业全面发展,以统筹城乡综合配套改革试验区成都市的行政村16岁以上常住居民、主管文体工作的村干部、村落非正式或正式的体育组织为研究对象,综合运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、访谈调查法、数理统计法对村落体育公共服务存在的问题、原因及发展策略进行研究。主要研究结论为:村落体育公共服务存在村民参与体育活动的比例不高、村民的总体满意度评价不高、供给总体水平不高且不均衡、自组织能力较差、村民的参与程度较低、发展的长效机制尚未建立等问题,这些问题产生的原因本质上看是体制和机制不健全所致。为此,要建立相应的村落体育公共服务的分工体制、财政支撑体制、多元参与机制和监督机制,解决政府对村落体育公共服务的制度化投入问题,以及提高政府投入的效果和效率;最大限度地动员市场、第三部门和村落社区参与村落体育公共服务的供给与生产,实现村落体育公共服务供给与生产的多元化和可持续性。
Abstract: In order to construct the harmonious society in rural areas, and promote sports development in all aspects, this study took villagers over 16 years old, village cadres responsible for physical activity and culture, and formal or informal sports organization as research objects, and analyzed the problems, reasons and countermeasures of public sports service in village by the methods of literature review, questionnaire, interview and statistics. The main conclusions were as follows. The problems of public sports service in village included the low level of villagers’ participation in physical activity, low satisfaction degree of villagers for public sports service, low level and unbalanced public sports service supply, poor ability of self-organization, villagers’ low level involvement in public sports service supply, and lack of long term developmental mechanism. Those problems were caused by imperfect system and mechanism. Thus, division of labor system, finance support system, multi-agent involvement mechanism, and supervisory mechanism should be established, so as to solve the problems of government’s institutional investment, and improve effectiveness and efficiency of public funds; also realize diversity and sustainability of public sports services supply and production in village by mobilizing market, NGO, village community getting involvement in it
Сomparative survey of rural and urban medical service  [PDF]
N.G. Korshever,A.P. Gretchishnikov
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2010,
Abstract: The article presents anonymous questionnaire data. it points out that the results of comparative analysis of some medical service parameters of rural and urban population have been based on anonymous questionnaire of 93 physicians. Revealed information can be useful in substantiation of proper optimization directions
“It All Goes Back to the Services”: A Rural/Urban Comparison of Service Providers’ Perceptions of Challenges and Facilitators to Disability Services  [PDF]
Moya L. Alfonso, Ashley Walker, Akrati Gupta, Joseph Telfair, Gavin Colquit
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.510048
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore rural/urban differences in service providers’ perceptions of challenges and facilitators to services for children with special health care needs (CSHN) and their families in southeast Georgia. Methodology: A total of 23 individual interviews were conducted with service providers in one rural county in southeast Georgia (N = 12) and in one urban county in north central Georgia (N = 11). Interviews were based on the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs 2009-2010 survey. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and coded with the intent of identifying themes and illustrative quotes. Findings: Service providers discussed a variety of challenges to accessing services related to socioeconomic status and the transition out of the school system. Urban and rural service providers’ perceptions were similar overall, with the exception of lack of transportation and access to a variety of services in rural area. Service providers overcome challenges through identifying parents’ needs and limitations and adapting service provision. Some of the facilitators mentioned by both urban and rural service providers are availability of transportation and resources. Practical Implications: The results of this study provide public health practice and policy implications that could guide the pathways of targeted interventions to improve the access and availability of variety of services for CSHCN. Originality/value of paper: This paper represents an in-depth exploration of service provider’s perceptions of challenges and facilitators related to service provision for children with special healthcare needs.
Regional and Urban/Rural Differences of Public Health in China
Yuhui Li,Linda Dorsten
Global Journal of Health Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n1p20
Abstract: This research studies public health in China between urban and rural sectors and among the three geographic regions of the coast, inland and west. Similar to the situation of many other countries, public health in China is affected by economic development levels and the extent to which economic resources are distributed equitably in the three regions. In addition, China’s economic reform in the last three decades has brought about tremendous changes in social structure and institutional arrangements that we argue have had significant impact on health of the population in China as well. These structural changes include village-run industrial development in rural areas, the reform of state-owned enterprises in urban areas and the marketization of medical institutions.
Analysis on the Incentive Mechanism for Enhancing Rural Public Service Ability
Guangsheng Fei,Guifang Yao
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009,
Abstract: Government should foster the spirit of public service, establish the people oriented value, transform governmental function, set up reasonable responsibility sharing system and build the pluralistic rural public service supply mechanism leaded by the government. Only in this way, government can enhance the ability of the rural public service and improve the level of the rural public service.
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration Development of Public Sports Service in China  [PDF]
Luojing Zhu, Xinsen He
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B030
Abstract:

The paper analyzed the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service in China. There are many influence factors about Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service. As follows: 1) The complexity of Administrative districts restricted balance development of the sports public services in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Dual economic structure of urban and rural areas result in imbalance of city and countryside development; 3) The single outlay source of sports funds has restricted the development and affected the increase of quality of sports public service. At the same time, I put forward the corresponding countermeasures and Suggestions: 1)T Choose compound administration model to be administrative model of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Promoting urban and rural integration to realize equalization of sports public service; 3) Improving sports public service system of the community; 4) Actively exploring multi-channel financing of sports and optimizing sports funds structure; 5) Establishing fairly detailed Assessment system associated with sports public service.

城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策研究
Research on Fiscal Policy of the Equal Access to Basic Public Services between Urban and Rural Areas
 [PDF]

李燕凌,彭园媛
- , 2016,
Abstract: 城乡“二元结构”利益固化的财政政策,导致局部地区城乡公共服务差异大,且地区城乡基本公共服务均等化程度因地而异。推进城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策,根本目标在于实现公共服务城乡统筹发展,应加快扩大国家财政“三农”支出比重、明确地方财政承担“三农”支出的责任、规范财政转移支付、加快推进新型城镇化,并同步推进城乡一体化建设。
Urban and rural areas “dual structure” interests curing of fiscal policy, makes large difference of regional urban and rural public services, and different parts of the urban and rural basic public services equalization degree also varies from place to place. Promote equal basic public services between urban and rural areas of fiscal policy, fundamental goal is to realize the public service of urban and rural development as a whole, is the main measure to speed up the expansion of “agriculture, rural areas and farmers” by the national finance expenditure proportion, specific local governments bear the responsibility of the “three rural” spending, standard financial transfer payment, accelerate the new urbanization promoting the construction of urban and rural integration and synchronization.
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