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Exploring Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Personal Orientations and Reasons of Discipline in Physical Education Class  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Ioanna Tsiana
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2016.63018
Abstract: In this study we examined associations among physical education instructors’ verbal aggressiveness as perceived by students and students’ task and ego orientations and reasons for discipline. The sample consisted of 283 Greek adolescent students (124 males, 159 females) aged 10 - 14 years old (M = 12.6, SD = .94) from primary and secondary schools who completed three types of questionnaires during physical education classes. The results supported the internal consistency of the instruments. MANOVA’s findings supported that there is a significant dependence between school classes on the factors of each questionnaire. Specifically, the 2nd grade of secondary school proved to have the lower score on verbal aggressiveness, the 2nd grade of secondary school the higher score on ego-orientation, the 1st grade of secondary school the higher score on external reasons of discipline and the 5th grade of primary school the lower score on caring reasons. Correlational analysis indicated that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was positively related to students’ ego orientation, external reasons, introjected reasons, no reasons, and self-responsibility reasons for discipline. Significant negative correlations were noted for instructors’ verbal aggression with students’ task orientation, intrinsic reasons and caring reasons for discipline. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness could significantly predict the variables of students’ personal orientations and external reasons, intrinsic reasons and self-responsibility reasons for discipline. Distinct types of disciplined students are also proposed: 1) the “obedient” and 2) “altruist”. The findings and implications of the contribution of instructors’ verbal aggressive behavior to the students’ personal orientations and reasons for discipline are further discussed as well as future research suggestions.
Analyzing Networks of Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivation  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Stergiani Deliligka, Nikolaos Hasanagas
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.83031
Abstract: Aim of this research is to analyze motivation and verbal aggressiveness as structure of relations and to detect their determinants. A university class of 62 students and 4 instructors has been analyzed as a network. In- and out-degree, degree, pagerank, katz and authority have been calculated. They were correlated (Spearman test) with several non-network variables such as economic status, age, gender, etc. Visone and SPSS have been used. Main results are the following: Mastery influence is a more common situation than influence aiming at performance and verbal aggressiveness which necessitate fanaticism or familiarity. Students with high grade are quite central in influencing and being influenced for learning pedagogic-psychological issues. In the case of learning biology (mastery), the teaching staff is the main stimulator in contrast to case of pedagogic-psychological field. The age and the experience of travelling abroad are also conducive to learning biology. Male students seem to be more influential than the female ones, as the sport is still perceived as a male-dominated field. Students interested in medicinal subjects are rather unable to stimulate others in sport issues, as there is a contextual deficit between medicinal and sport subjects. Female students seem to stimulate for improvement. Students interested in the medicinal subjects tend to be stimulated and to stimulate others to surpass performance limits. The desire for professional eminence also seems to discourage offenders indicating the existence of organization culture at the department. Travelling abroad for sport reasons increases offensiveness. Students originating from rural areas tend more to become target of offenses, indicating thus spatial-regional discrimination. Students of higher economic state are more deriding. The proposed typologies of motivation influence and verbal aggressiveness include the “invulnerable motivator” and the “vulnerable motivator” as well as the “strong motivator” and the “brawler” type.
Verbal Aggressiveness and Affective Learning in Physical Education  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Theodota Tsaggopoulou
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2016.64041
Abstract: In this study, relations among physical education instructors’ verbal aggressiveness were examined as perceived by students and students’ affective learning. The sample consisted of 297 students (approx. 50% males and 50% females) aged 9 - 12 years old (M = 11.2, SD = 0.68) from primary schools who completed two types of questionnaires during physical education classes. Statistically significant differences were observed in affect towards recommended course behavior between the two genders of the students. ANOVA’s findings supported that there was a significant dependence between classes on the factors of affect towards course content and affect towards recommended course behavior. Correlational analysis indicated that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was negatively related to affect towards course content, affect towards recommended course behavior and affect towards the instructor. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness could significantly predict the variables of affect towards the instructor. Distinct types of students are also proposed: 1) the “full affected” and 2) the “behaviorally affected” student.
Exploring Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness through Interpersonal Attraction and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Dimitrios Petanidis
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.412007
Abstract: This study is aiming at: 1) exploring the relationship between perceived teachers verbal aggressiveness, interpersonal attraction and student intrinsic motivation; 2) investigating the influence of teachers verbal aggressiveness on their interpersonal attraction and student intrinsic motivation in physical education context and 3) proposing a students’ and teachers’ typology. The sample consisted of 223 Greek students (125 males, 98 females) aged 10 - 12 years old (M = 11.2, SD = 0.49) from primary schools. The results supported the internal consistency of the instruments. Statistically significant differences were observed in instructors’ verbal aggressiveness, physical attraction, enjoyment/importance, competence and pressure/tension between the genders of the students. ANOVA’s findings supported that there was a significant dependence between schools regions on the factors of effort/interest and pressure/tension. Perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness was negatively related to social attraction, task attraction, physical attraction, enjoyment/importance, effort/interest and competence, while there was a positive significant relationship between verbal aggressiveness and pressure/tension. The results of regression analysis revealed that perceived instructors’ verbal aggressiveness could significantly predict the variables of social, physical attraction and students’ effort/interest, competence and pressure/tension. Distinct types of relations between students and instructors may be distinguished: The “motivation by attraction” and “student autonomy”.
Dynamic Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness Networks in School  [PDF]
Dimitrios Theocharis, Alexandra Bekiari
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.61002
Abstract:
Aim of this study is to detect structures of verbal aggressiveness network and also reveal changes through time. Standardized questionnaires have been distributed to 168 students and 8 teachers at secondary schools in 2017. We performed complete social networks analysis and further processing by conventional statistics. According to the results, density could be a first indicator of verbal aggressiveness existence. The verbal aggressiveness seems to become denser through time. Most ties are asymmetric and only a small amount becomes mutual. Thus, inequality appears. Verbal aggressors seem to target more than one victim and use all forms of verbal aggression. Triad analysis can disclose elementary “sources of verbal aggressiveness”. More verbal aggression ties are added than deleted over time.
Exploration of Determinants of Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership through Network Analysis and Conventional Statistics: Using School Class as an Illustration  [PDF]
Dimitrios Theocharis, Alexandra Bekiari, Athanasios Koustelios
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2017.72003
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to detect structures of verbal aggressiveness and leadership using social networks analysis. Standardized questionnaires including network and non-network variables have been distributed to 128 students and 43 teachers at secondary schools. We performed complete analysis of social networks and further processing by applying principal component analysis. According to the results, a complex structure of verbal aggressiveness occurred in the classes (networks) and the structure was necessary to be explored with several network indicators (Katz, pagerank etc.). Structures of verbal aggressiveness and leadership appeared to converge. The following types of verbal aggressors were proposed: a) the “mocker”, b) the “scorner”, c) the “insulter”, d) the “teaser” and e) the “ridiculer”. As for the leadership, two types of leaders have been revealed: a) the “ideologist leader”, b) the “realist” leader. It is noticeable that both leader types appear in the occasional (indegree) as well as in the accumulative (Katz) structure. This means a rigid character of these leadership profiles.
Insights into Bullying and Verbal Aggressiveness through Social Network Analysis  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Vasiliki Pachi
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.59006
Abstract: Aim of this research is to reveal social structures, typologies and determinants of verbal aggressiveness and bullying. Five students’ networks from various Higher Education departments in Thessaly, Greece (Physical Education, Veterinary, Business Administration) (total nodes N = 245) have been examined by Social Network Analysis and conventional statistics in 2017. Main results: Rudeness relations are denser at the Physical Education department due to the intensity and pressure of corporal exercise. Social exclusion seems to be much more common practice. Hurting necessitates particularly intensive conditions while deriding, rudeness and threatening are compatible with any action of bullying. The offenders tend to practice simultaneously bullying and verbal aggressiveness but often against different targets. Various levels of victimization are diagnosed through selectiveness in strategies of offense. Obesity often constitutes a reason of depreciation. Education values stimulate respectfulness rather than aggressive jealousness. Ambitiousness, travelling experience, social selectiveness based on criteria of intellectual, encyclopedic qualifications or politeness also prevent verbal aggressiveness. Female students seem to be more invulnerable. Bullying seems to be reciprocal and diachronic. Verbal aggressiveness seems to conceal a presumption of corporal aggressiveness. Especially, ambitiousness in the scientific arena or the high education level of father seems to encourage practicing verbal aggressiveness.
Applying Social Network Indicators in the Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness at the School  [PDF]
Dimitrios Theocharis, Alexandra Bekiari
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2017.57015
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to detect structures of verbal aggressiveness using multiple indicators of social networks analysis (out- and in-degree, pagerank, Katz, authority, incremental and proportional behavior). Standardized questionnaires have been distributed to 151 students and 45 teachers at primary and secondary schools. We performed complete analysis of social networks and further processing by applying principal component analysis. According to the results, a complex structure of verbal aggressiveness occurred in the classes (networks) and the structure was necessary to be explored with several network indicators (Katz, pagerank, incremental and proportional behavior etc.). Prejudices about the role of the gender in the aggressiveness (e.g. that female are more peaceful than male) are deconstructed. As for the typology of the incremental and proportional behavior two types were proposed: 1) the “personal attack” that the verbal aggressor aims the victim’s personality and 2) “social exclusion” that the strategy is to exclude the victim from the social surrounding.
Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness in Physical Education: Perceptions of Teachers and Students in Qualitative and Quantitative Exploration  [PDF]
Stergiani Deliligka, Alexandra Bekiari, Ioannis Syrmpas
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.811112
Abstract: This study is aiming at examining 1) physical education teachers’ self-perceived verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness, 2) students’ perceptions about verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness developed by their teachers, in order to assess the communicational accordance between students’ and teachers’ perceptions in elementary, junior and high schools. A combination of qualitative (study 1) and quantitative methods (study 2) has been implemented for this purpose. Fifteen PE teachers (6 females and 9 males), participated in the qualitative study; and 894 students (442 males, 452 females), participated in the quantitative study. According to the study 1, argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness are features that co-exist to a person’s behavior. Five communicational PE teachers’ profiles have been detected (“high argumentativeness-low verbal aggressiveness” “moderate argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness”, “moderate argumentativeness-low verbal aggressiveness”, “low argumentativeness-high verbal aggressiveness”, “low argumentativeness-moderate verbal aggressiveness”). According to these, PE teachers who are capable of arguing are less likely to expose a verbally aggressive behavior. Determinants of this are students’ behaviors, attitudes and disagreements or conflicts. When arguments are avoided, verbal aggressiveness is enhanced. Verbal aggressiveness plays the role of discipline. The prompt transition from argumentativeness to verbal aggressiveness is explained by the fact that teachers can’t interpret the difference between attacks on a position. According to the study 2, the findings supported the differences in verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness between schools, showing at the same time students’ perceptions about their PE teachers. PE teachers’ reports about the perceived verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness were aligned in the vast majority of the profiles with their students’ perceptions.
Suggesting Indicators of Superficiality and Purity in Verbal Aggressiveness: An Application in Adult Education Class Networks of Prison Inmates  [PDF]
Alexandra Bekiari, Nikolaos Hasanagas
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.43035
Abstract: Aim of this research is to suggest indicators, based on social network analysis, that distinguish superficial, idiosyncratic and strategic verbal aggressiveness. Two classes of an adult education school (at secondary level) in a prison have been selected as network samples (A class = 23 and B class = 12 prisoners). Complete network analysis has been applied, using standardized questionnaires. The network variables have further processed through Pearson correlation. Indicators of superficial and pure roles, particularly incremental and proportional behavior, have been applied in two forms of verbal aggressiveness (criticism and threatening). The superficial behavior (SB: outdegree of verbal aggressiveness) seems to be a quite sensitive indicator, as it presents correlations with various other relational forms of familiarity, aggressiveness and appreciation/socialization. The incremental behavior (IB: difference of received from outgoing actions) is also a sensitive indicator, revealing, however, different results. Pure aggressiveness (in terms of difference) seems to be related with quite different causes and/or occasions than the superficial aggressiveness. Incremental behavior is likely to be at first place driven by the idiosyncrasy rather than by exogenous factors and seems to constitute a completely different notion than the SB. The proportional behavior (PB: ration of outgoing to the received actions) of aggression is a quite insensitive indicator, as it depends only on a few behavioral variables. It seems to reveal a rational strategy of adaptability. Thus, it characteristically differs from the indicators of superficiality (expressing reciprocity patterns) and of the incremental aggressiveness (expressing individualism).
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