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The Moral Reasoning of Adolescent Boys and Girls in the Light of Gilligan’s Theory  [cached]
Farhat Kalsoom,Malik Ghulam Behlol,Muhammad Munir Kayani,Aneesa Kaini
International Education Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v5n3p15
Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls in the light of Gilligan theory. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls with reference to responsibility orientation versus justice orientation and to compare the frequency of adolescent boys and girls with right orientation and responsibility orientation. The population of study consisted of all adolescent boys and girls studying in SSC and F.A/FSc of Fazaia Inter College Chaklala Rawalpindi. They all were sixteen to twenty years of age. The sample of study consisted of 40 boys and 40 girls studying in Matric and F.A/FSc of Fazaia Inter College Chaklala Rawalpindi, were taken applying random sampling technique. The scale developed by Baker and Role (2002), an objective measure of the two orientations was translated into Urdu language for the collection of the data of the study. The main conclusions of the study were that adolescent girls found to be more care oriented than boys, however, they were found to be equal on justice oriented. It was also inferred that religion is the most important factor which influence the moral judgment and justice oriented approach of boys and girls. The present study partially supports Gilligan’s theory and it was also concluded that cultural norms do play an important role to make the boys more assertive to boys as compared to girls. It is expected from girls that they should be submissive, introvert and caring as compared to boys.
De Piaget a Gilligan: retrospectiva do desenvolvimento moral em psicologia um caminho para o estudo das virtudes From Piaget to Gilligan: moral development retrospective in Psychology a way to the virtues’study  [cached]
Vanessa Aparecida Alves de Lima
Psicologia: Ciência e Profiss?o , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/s1414-98932004000300003
Abstract: Este artigo é a adapta o de um capítulo da disserta o desenvolvida no Mestrado em Psicologia Escolar e do Desenvolvimento Humano do Instituto de Psicologia da USP. Implica a visita o teórica das obras de Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg e Carol Gilligan sobre o desenvolvimento moral na perspectiva da Psicologia. As teorias s o construídas a partir de uma concep o da moralidade por meio de fatores cognitivos e baseados na justi a, na opini o dos dois primeiros autores, até o desenvolvimento da ética do cuidado, na teoria da terceira autora. Tal caminho nos leva inevitavelmente a considerar que diversos elementos, n o só a justi a, participam do juízo e da a o moral, entre eles, virtudes como a generosidade. This article is an adaptation of a chapter from the USP Psychology Institute Master’s degree dissertation in School Psychology and Human Development. It involves the theoretical knowledge of Jean Piaget, Laurence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan about the moral development in the perspective of Psychology. The theories are built based on a conception of morality through cognitive factors and based on justice, according to the two first authors, up to the development of the care ethic, according to the third author’s theory. This concept leads us, inevitably, to consider that several elements, not only justice, take part in sense and moral action, among them, virtues as generosity.
Gender and Moral Reasoning: A Study of a Nigeria Adult Sample
S.O. Adebayo
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The study investigated the influence of gender on moral reasoning in an adult population using the philosophical-psychological component paradigm of Boyce and Jensen. 354 women and 391 men drawn from five occupations responded to Moral Content Test (MCT). Statistical analysis of data using t-independent test revealed no significant difference between the sexes on each of the nine ethical considerations that make up the normative ethics of teleology and deonotology. Findings refute Gilligan`s postulation about the unique moral voice of women and corroborated no significant difference between the sexes on moral reasoning.
Gender a morálka (Gender and Morality)  [cached]
Petra Laj?iaková
Ostium , 2012,
Abstract: This study focuses on the importance of gender dimensions for moral development. The paper brings some discussions about two distinct moral orientations (of justice and care) and two types of moral reasoning elaborated by Carol Gilligan. The study introduces the main features of Gilligan’s conception as the critical response to the conception of Lawrence Kohlberg. It also points out the limits of Gilligan's theory of moral orientations.
The psychology of moral reasoning  [PDF]
Monica Bucciarelli,Sangeet Khemlani,P. N. Johnson-Laird
Judgment and Decision Making , 2008,
Abstract: This article presents a theory of reasoning about moral propositions that is based on four fundamental principles. First, no simple criterion picks out propositions about morality from within the larger set of deontic propositions concerning what is permissible and impermissible in social relations, the law, games, and manners. Second, the mechanisms underlying emotions and deontic evaluations are independent and operate in parallel, and so some scenarios elicit emotions prior to moral evaluations, some elicit moral evaluations prior to emotions, and some elicit them at the same time. Third, deontic evaluations depend on inferences, either unconscious intuitions or conscious reasoning. Fourth, human beliefs about what is, and isn't, moral are neither complete nor consistent. The article marshals the evidence, which includes new studies, corroborating these principles, and discusses the relations between them and other current theories of moral reasoning.
Charisma and Moral Reasoning  [PDF]
Jessica Flanigan
Religions , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/rel4020216
Abstract: Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.
Etyka troski i etyka sprawiedliwo ci. Czy moralno zale y od p ci? (ETHICS OF CARE AND ETHICS OF JUSTICE. DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON GENDER?)  [PDF]
Renata Ziemińska
Analiza i Egzystencja , 2008,
Abstract: The article presents the ethics of care by Carol Gilligan in controversy with Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Gilligan discovered that women turned to be deficient in moral development when measured by Kohlberg's scale (usually on the third stage of his six stages). She rejected the scale as derived from the study of men. Her own studies suggest that autonomy and moral rights are not so important for women as care and responsibility for persons in relationships; moral problems arise from conflicting responsibilities rather than from competing rights and rules; women have different moral priorities; morality of rights and noninterference are frightening to women because presuppose indifference; women's ethics is not the ethics of justice but the ethics of care (three stages of moral development: care for myself, care for others, the balance between the care for myself and the care for others). Later research showed that the two moral orientations are not divided between biological sexes but rather cultural genders (cultural constructions of masculinity and femininity). The ethics of care has its own problems (the care for evil). The authoress claims that both perspectives converge and are next dilemma in ethics. Moral maturity must encompass both justice and care.
Reasoning, cognitive control, and moral intuition  [PDF]
Richard Patterson,Aron K. Barbey
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00114
Abstract: Recent Social Intuitionist work suggests that moral judgments are intuitive (not based on conscious deliberation or any significant chain of inference), and that the reasons we produce to explain or justify our judgments and actions are for the most part post hoc rationalizations rather than the actual source of those judgments. This is consistent with work on judgment and explanation in other domains, and it correctly challenges one-sidedly rationalistic accounts. We suggest that in fact reasoning has a great deal of influence on moral judgments and on intuitive judgments in general. This influence is not apparent from study of judgments simply in their immediate context, but it is crucial for the question of how cognition can help us avoid deleterious effects and enhance potentially beneficial effects of affect on judgment, action, and cognition itself. We begin with established work on several reactive strategies for cognitive control of affect (e.g., suppression, reappraisal), then give special attention to more complex sorts of conflict (“extended deliberation”) involving multiple interacting factors, both affective and reflective. These situations are especially difficult to study in a controlled way, but we propose some possible experimental approaches. We then review proactive strategies for control, including avoidance of temptation and mindfulness meditation (Froeliger et al., 2012, this issue). We give special attention to the role of slow or “cool” cognitive processes (e.g., deliberation, planning, and executive control) in the inculcation of long-term dispositions, traits, intuitions, skills, or habits. The latter are critical because they in turn give rise to a great many of our fast, intuitive judgments. The reasoning processes involved here are distinct from post hoc rationalizations and have a very real impact on countless intuitive judgments in concrete situations. This calls for a substantial enlargement of research on cognitive control, drawing on work in developmental psychology, automatization, educational theory, and other fields.
The Roles of Dehumanization and Moral Outrage in Retributive Justice  [PDF]
Brock Bastian, Thomas F. Denson, Nick Haslam
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061842
Abstract: When innocents are intentionally harmed, people are motivated to see that offenders get their “just deserts”. The severity of the punishment they seek is driven by the perceived magnitude of the harm and moral outrage. The present research extended this model of retributive justice by incorporating the role of offender dehumanization. In three experiments relying on survey methodology in Australia and the United States, participants read about different crimes that varied by type (child molestation, violent, or white collar – Studies 1 and 2) or severity (Study 3). The findings demonstrated that both moral outrage and dehumanization predicted punishment independently of the effects of crime type or crime severity. Both moral outrage and dehumanization mediated the relationship between perceived harm and severity of punishment. These findings highlight the role of offender dehumanization in punishment decisions and extend our understanding of processes implicated in retributive justice.
EXPERIENCES OF VIOLENCE AND MORAL REASONING IN A CONTEXT OF VENGEANCE/ EXPERIENCIAS DE VIOLENCIA Y RAZONAMIENTO MORAL EN UN CONTEXTO DE VENGANZA/ EXPERIêNCIAS DE VIOLêNCIA E RACIONAMENTO MORAL EM UM CONTEXTO DE VINGAN A  [PDF]
Roberto Posada Gilède
Revista Colombiana de Psicología , 2012,
Abstract: Relations between exposure to violence and moral reasoning were explored. Ninety-six participants aged 6-16 years evaluated the acceptability of stealing and causing physical harm in a situation of vengeance. Self-reports of exposure to violence were collected from each participant. Findings indicated that previous exposure to violence is related to moral reasoning in contexts of vengeance. Participants who reported having witnessed more violence, especially against family members, evaluated causing physical harm more positively, provided justifications entailing retaliation more frequently, and offered fewer reasons related to the conventional and personal realms, in a context of vengeance. Moreover, witnessing particular violent events was found to be positively correlated with judgments justified with reasons involving retaliation. These results suggest that participants think of vengeance as a way to restore justice (a moral issue) through expiatory sanction.
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